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      Cellular Transfection to Deliver Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase to Hepatocytes: A Rational Gene Therapy for Primary Hyperoxaluria-1 (PH-1)

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          Abstract

          Background: Primary hyperoxaluria-type 1 (PH-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glyoxalate metabolism caused by deficiency in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxalate transaminase 1 (AGT) resulting in the increased oxidation of glyoxalate to oxalate. Accumulation of oxalate in the kidney and other soft tissues results in loss of renal function and significant morbidity. The present treatment options offer some relief in the short term, but they are not completely successful. In the present study, we tested the feasibility of corrective gene therapy for this metabolic disorder. Methods: A cDNA library was made from HepG2 cells. PCR primers were designed for the AGT sequence with modifications to preclude mistargeting during gene delivery. Amplified AGT cDNA was cloned as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein (GFP) using the vector EGFP-C1 (Clontech) for monitoring subcellular distribution. Sequence and expression of the fusion protein was verified. Fusion protein vectors were transfected into hepatocytes by liposomal transfection. AGT expression and subcellular distribution was monitored by GFP fluorescence. Results: HepG2 cells express full-length mRNA coding for AGT as confirmed by insert size as well as sequence determination. Selective primers allowed us to generate a modified recombinant GFP-AGT fusion protein. Cellular transfections with Lipofectamine resulted in transfection efficiencies of 60–90%. The recombinant AGT did localize to peroxisomes as monitored by GFP fluorescence. Conclusions: The results demonstrate preliminary in vitro feasibility data for AGT transfection into the hepatocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to attempt recombinant AGT gene therapy for treatment of primary hyperoxaluria-1.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Oilseed isocitrate lyases lacking their essential type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal are piggybacked to glyoxysomes.

          Isocitrate lyase (IL) is an essential enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle, which is a pathway involved in the mobilization of stored lipids during postgerminative growth of oil-rich seedlings. We determined experimentally the necessary and sufficient peroxisome targeting signals (PTSs) for cottonseed, oilseed rape, and castor bean ILs in a well-characterized in vivo import system, namely, suspension-cultured tobacco (Bright Yellow) BY-2 cells. Results were obtained by comparing immunofluorescence localizations of wild-type and C-terminal-truncated proteins transiently expressed from cDNAs introduced by microprojectile bombardment. The tripeptides ARM-COOH (on cottonseed and castor bean ILs) and SRM-COOH (on oilseed rape IL) were necessary for targeting and actual import of these ILs into glyoxysomes, and ARM-COOH was sufficient for redirecting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) from the cytosol into the glyoxysomes. Surprisingly, IL and CAT subunits without these tripeptides were still acquired by glyoxysomes, but only when wild-type IL or CAT-SKL subunits, respectively, were simultaneously expressed in the cells. These results reveal that targeting signal-depleted subunits are being piggybacked as multimers to glyoxysomes by association with subunits possessing a PTS1. Targeted multimers are then translocated through membrane pores or channels to the matrix as oligomers or as subunits before reoligomerization in the matrix.
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            Evaluation of mutation screening as a first line test for the diagnosis of the primary hyperoxalurias.

            A definitive diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) requires the measurement of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) and glyoxylate reductase (GR) activities, respectively, in a liver biopsy. We have evaluated a molecular genetic approach for the diagnosis of these autosomal-recessive diseases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect three common mutations in the AGXT gene (c.33_34insC, c.508G>A, and c.731T>C) and one, c.103delG, in the GRHPR gene in DNA samples from 365 unrelated individuals referred for diagnosis of PH1 and/or PH2 by liver enzyme analysis. One or more of these mutations was found in 183 (68.8%) biopsy proven cases of PH1 and PH2 with a test negative predictive value of 62% and 2%, respectively. 102 (34.1%) patients were homozygous or compound heterozygous, making a molecular diagnosis possible. Age of onset and presenting features were similar in patients homozygous for any of the four mutations. Of the AGXT homozygotes, only the c.508G>A mutant was associated with significant AGT catalytic activity and in two of these activity was in the low normal range, possibly reflecting variation in mitochondrial content of the biopsy as this particular mutation is associated with mitochondrial mistargeting. Limited mutation analysis can provide a useful first line test for PH1 and PH2 in patients in whom primary hyperoxaluria is suspected and in whom secondary causes have been excluded. Those patients in whom a single mutation, or no mutation, is found can then be selectively targeted for liver biopsy.
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              Crystal structure of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and the relationship between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

              A deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is responsible for the potentially lethal hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). Many of the mutations in the gene encoding AGT are associated with specific enzymatic phenotypes such as accelerated proteolysis (Ser205Pro), intra-peroxisomal aggregation (Gly41Arg), inhibition of pyridoxal phosphate binding and loss of catalytic activity (Gly82Glu), and peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting (Gly170Arg). Several mutations, including that responsible for AGT mistargeting, co-segregate and interact synergistically with a Pro11Leu polymorphism found at high frequency in the normal population. In order to gain further insights into the mechanistic link between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in PH1, we have determined the crystal structure of normal human AGT complexed to the competitive inhibitor amino-oxyacetic acid to 2.5A. Analysis of this structure allows the effects of these mutations and polymorphism to be rationalised in terms of AGT tertiary and quaternary conformation, and in particular it provides a possible explanation for the Pro11Leu-Gly170Arg synergism that leads to AGT mistargeting.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                April 2005
                18 May 2005
                : 25
                : 2
                : 176-182
                Affiliations
                Signal Transduction and Molecular Urology Laboratories, Program in Urosciences, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, and Cancer Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colo., USA
                Article
                85410 PMC1242120 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:176–182
                10.1159/000085410
                PMC1242120
                15849465
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 19, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/85410
                Categories
                7th International Workshop on Primary Hyperoxaluria. October, 2004, Rochester, Minn. ...

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