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      The mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants: From scavenging reactive oxygen/nitrogen species to redox signaling and the generation of bioactive secondary metabolites : HUNYADI

      1 , 2
      Medicinal Research Reviews
      Wiley

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          Flavonoids as antioxidants.

          Flavonoids are phenolic substances isolated from a wide range of vascular plants, with over 8000 individual compounds known. They act in plants as antioxidants, antimicrobials, photoreceptors, visual attractors, feeding repellants, and for light screening. Many studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit biological activities, including antiallergenic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, and vasodilating actions. However, most interest has been devoted to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids, which is due to their ability to reduce free radical formation and to scavenge free radicals. The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in vitro has been the subject of several studies in the past years, and important structure-activity relationships of the antioxidant activity have been established. The antioxidant efficacy of flavonoids in vivo is less documented, presumably because of the limited knowledge on their uptake in humans. Most ingested flavonoids are extensively degraded to various phenolic acids, some of which still possess a radical-scavenging ability. Both the absorbed flavonoids and their metabolites may display an in vivo antioxidant activity, which is evidenced experimentally by the increase of the plasma antioxidant status, the sparing effect on vitamin E of erythrocyte membranes and low-density lipoproteins, and the preservation of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. This review presents the current knowledge on structural aspects and in vitro antioxidant capacity of most common flavonoids as well as in vivo antioxidant activity and effects on endogenous antioxidants.
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            Strategies of antioxidant defense.

            H Sies (1993)
            Cellular protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxidants generated in aerobic metabolism, called oxidative stress, is organized at multiple levels. Defense strategies include three levels of protection; prevention, interception, and repair. Regulation of the antioxidant capacity includes the maintenance of adequate levels of antioxidant and the localization of antioxidant compounds and enzymes. Short-term and long-term adaptation and cell specialisation in these functions are new areas of interest. Control over the activity of prooxidant enzymes, such as NADPH oxidase and NO synthases, is crucial. Synthetic antioxidants mimic biological strategies.
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              Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis.

              The development of processes for selective hydrocarbon oxidation is a goal that has long been pursued. An additional challenge is to make such processes environmentally friendly, for example by using non-toxic reagents and energy-efficient catalytic methods. Excellent examples are naturally occurring iron- or copper-containing metalloenzymes, and extensive studies have revealed the key chemical principles that underlie their efficacy as catalysts for aerobic oxidations. Important inroads have been made in applying this knowledge to the development of synthetic catalysts that model enzyme function. Such biologically inspired hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts hold great promise for wide-ranging synthetic applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicinal Research Reviews
                Med Res Rev
                Wiley
                01986325
                May 10 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Pharmacognosy, Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, University of Szeged, Eötvös str. 6; H-6720 Szeged Hungary
                [2 ]Interdisciplinary Centre for Natural Products, University of Szeged, Eötvös str. 6; H-6720 Szeged Hungary
                Article
                10.1002/med.21592
                31074028
                650a6894-6abc-4353-a6e0-993db9317644
                © 2019

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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