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      Efecto de diferentes grados de actividad física en la presentación de cambios anatómicos e histológicos relacionados con el envejecimiento renal Translated title: Effects of Different Grades of Physical Activity in the Presentation of Anathomic and Histologic Changes Related with Renal Aging

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          Abstract

          Objetivos: determinar los cambios anatómicos del ejercicio en el envejecimiento renal. Metodología: estudio longitudinal experimental durante 54 semanas. Se tomaron 120 ratones machos cepa Suizo, los cuales según su actividad se dividieron en 3 grupos: sedentarios, normales y activos. El ejercicio se moduló con el espacio habitacional y el acceso al alimento. Se sacrificaron 3 animales por grupo desde la 9ª semana de edad cada 9 semanas. Se consideraron animales jóvenes aquellos menores de 27 semanas y viejos los mayores de 36. Los ratones y sus riñones se pesaron, y se estableción la relación peso riñones/peso ratón. Del riñón izquierdo de cada animal se midió la corteza y se realizó el estudio histológico con las coloraciones clásicas. Los cortes fueron analizados por 2 patólogos que no conocían el propósito del estudio; describieron cambios glomerulares y túbulo intersticiales, los cuales se clasificaron de nulos a severos. Se midieron áreas glomerulares y la relación luz/pared arterial. Resultados: El máximo crecimiento renal se observó a las 18 semanas. En la semana 54, los sedentarios tuvieron menor espesor cortical (2288,65 ± 552,75) que los normales (2502,7 ± 163,81) y los activos (2609,46 ± 273,28), con n=3 para todos los grupos. El área glomerular fue significativamente menor (P= 0,035) en sedentarios (8657,33 ± 1954,38), com- parativamente con los activos (10318,64 ± 2425,14), pero entre los normales (9791,52 ± 2211,63) y los otros dos grupos no existieron diferencias significativas: n=18 para cada grupo. La atrofia tubular en animales viejos fue del 55,5% en los sedentarios, mayor que en normales y activos, en los cuales fue del 44,4% no significativo. La nefritis intersticial fue menor en normales (55,5%), en comparación con los sedentarios y activos (77,7%) no significativo. Conclusión: el grupo sedentario presentó mayor compromiso estructural en el envejecimiento renal. Aunque el ejercicio moderado puede limitar la severidad de estos cambios, el ejercicio intenso puede aumentar la nefritis intersticial. Es importante resaltar la naturaleza activa de los roedores; según nuestra clasificación, el grupo activo correspondería a un humano hiperejercitado; el grupo normal, a personas con ejercicio físico frecuente; y el sedentario, a su igual.

          Translated abstract

          Objective: With the purpose of determining anatomical changes of exercise in renal aging. Methodology: we carried out an experimental longitudinal study during 54 weeks. 120 swiss male mice were used, which were divided into three groups depending on their activity: sedentary, normal and active. The exercise was modulated with room space and food acces. three animals were sacrificed per group from the ninth week of age, each nine weeks. All animals with less than 27 weeks of age were considered young animals, and old animals were more than 36 weeks old. all mice and kidneys were weighted, establishing a kidney weight/mouse weight relation. The cortex of each animal´s left kidney was measured. And a histological estudy with classical colorations was carried out. Such cuts were analyzed by 2 pathologist who did not know the purpose of this study; they described glomerular changes and interstitial tubulus, classifying them from null to severe. Glomerular areas, as well as light/arterial wall relation were measured. Results: maximum renal growing was detected 18 weeks later. At the 54 th week, the sedentary mice had less cortical thickness (2288,65 ± 552,75) than the animals of the normal group (2502,7 ± 163,81) and the active group (2609,46 ± 273,28), with n=3 for all groups. The glomerular area was significantly less (p=0,035) in sedentary animals (8657,33 ± 1954,38) compared to the active animals (10318,64 ± 2425,14), but significant differences were not found among the normal animals (9791,52 ± 2211,63) and the other to groups, n=18 for each group. tubular atrophy in old animals was 55,5% in sedentary animals, higher than in normal and active animals, in which it was 44,4%, not significant. Interstitial nephritis was less in normal animals (55,5%) compared to sedentary and active groups (77,7%), not significant. Conclusions: We could conclede that the sedentary life in mice is related with some descripting changes of the renal aging such as cortex decreased, glomerular atrophy and increasing risk to develop interstitial nephritis, although moderate exercise may limit severity of such changes, and intense exercise may increased interstitial nephritis.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation, and intrinsic renal disease.

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            Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 5/6-nephrectomized rats.

            The 5/6 nephrectomy model is used to study pathogenetic mechanisms underlying chronic renal failure. We previously demonstrated that increased mesangial cell proliferation and glomerular PDGF B-chain expression precede glomerulosclerosis in this model. In the present study we have assessed the concomitant changes in the cortical tubulointerstitium. A wave of tubular and interstitial cell proliferation (as determined by immunostaining for PCNA) occurred at week 1 after 5/6 nephrectomy. This wave preceded the peak glomerular cell proliferation by one week. Tubulointerstitial cell proliferation decreased thereafter and reached control values by week 10. In situ hybridization and immunostaining for PDGF B-chain and beta-receptor in sham-operated controls showed labeling of distal tubules and collecting ducts, while no signal was present in the interstitium. PDGF B-chain mRNA and protein expression was markedly increased in tubules at weeks 2 and 4 after 5/6 nephrectomy and in the interstitium (particularly in areas of inflammatory infiltrates) at weeks 2 to 10. Similar changes occurred with PDGF receptor beta-subunit immunostaining. Interstitial expression of desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (markers of myofibroblasts) progressively increased after week 1. Interstitial influx of monocytes/macrophages with focal accentuation started at week 2. Counts of lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets showed only minor changes. In parallel to the monocyte/macrophage influx, progressive interstitial accumulation of collagens I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin occurred. All of these changes were correlated with the increase in serum creatinine, proteinuria and an index of tubulointerstitial damage. We conclude that tubulointerstitial changes after 5/6 nephrectomy show similarities with those observed in the glomeruli. Tubular and interstitial overexpression of PDGF B-chain and its receptor may play a role in mediating fibroblast migration and/or proliferation in areas of tubulointerstitial injury.
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              Blood volume: its adaptation to endurance training.

              Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                recis
                Revista Ciencias de la Salud
                Rev. Cienc. Salud
                Editorial Universidad del Rosario (Bogotá )
                1692-7273
                December 2003
                : 1
                : 2
                : 112-134
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fundación Cardio Infantil Colombia
                [2 ] Universidad de La Salle Colombia
                Article
                S1692-72732003000200002
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

                Public health

                ratón, Exercise, kidney, aging, mouse, ejercicio, envejecimiento, riñón

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