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      Pidotimod: In-depth review of current evidence

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          Abstract

          Pidotimod, an immunostimulant, is researched for over two decades. Current evidence indicates its utility in a variety of indications in children as well as in adults. Its immunostimulant activity has been firmly established in the management of recurrent respiratory infections in children with or without asthma. Compared to standard of care alone, addition of pidotimod to standard of care significantly prevents the recurrences and reduces the severity and duration of acute episodes, ultimately resulting in reduced visits to pediatric clinics and lower absenteeism at school. In adults, pidotimod is effective in the prevention and treatment of acute infectious exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Further, it has been evaluated in indications such as pneumonia, hand–food–mouth disease, bronchiectasis, and chronic idiopathic urticaria. From a total of 32 studies conducted in child (24 studies) and adult (8 studies) population, this in-depth review discusses the current evidence of pidotimod. With further exploration, the immunostimulant activity of pidotimod might be extended to different immunological disorders.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Global and regional burden of hospital admissions for severe acute lower respiratory infections in young children in 2010: a systematic analysis

          Summary Background The annual number of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths due to severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children worldwide is unknown. We aimed to estimate the incidence of admissions and deaths for such infections in children younger than 5 years in 2010. Methods We estimated the incidence of admissions for severe and very severe ALRI in children younger than 5 years, stratified by age and region, with data from a systematic review of studies published between Jan 1, 1990, and March 31, 2012, and from 28 unpublished population-based studies. We applied these incidence estimates to population estimates for 2010, to calculate the global and regional burden in children admitted with severe ALRI in that year. We estimated in-hospital mortality due to severe and very severe ALRI by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from hospital-based studies. Findings We identified 89 eligible studies and estimated that in 2010, 11·9 million (95% CI 10·3–13·9 million) episodes of severe and 3·0 million (2·1–4·2 million) episodes of very severe ALRI resulted in hospital admissions in young children worldwide. Incidence was higher in boys than in girls, the sex disparity being greatest in South Asian studies. On the basis of data from 37 hospital studies reporting case fatality ratios for severe ALRI, we estimated that roughly 265 000 (95% CI 160 000–450 000) in-hospital deaths took place in young children, with 99% of these deaths in developing countries. Therefore, the data suggest that although 62% of children with severe ALRI are treated in hospitals, 81% of deaths happen outside hospitals. Interpretation Severe ALRI is a substantial burden on health services worldwide and a major cause of hospital referral and admission in young children. Improved hospital access and reduced inequities, such as those related to sex and rural status, could substantially decrease mortality related to such infection. Community-based management of severe disease could be an important complementary strategy to reduce pneumonia mortality and health inequities. Funding WHO.
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            Immunologic aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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              Acute respiratory infections among under-5 children in India: A situational analysis

              Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of death among children less than 5 years in India. Emergence of newer pathogenic organisms, reemergence of disease previously controlled, wide spread antibiotic resistance, and suboptimal immunization coverage even after many innovative efforts are major factors responsible for high incidence of ARI. Drastic reduction in the burden of ARI by low-cost interventions such as hand washing, breast feeding, availability of rapid and feasible array of diagnostics, and introduction of pentavalent vaccine under National Immunization Schedule which are ongoing are necessary for reduction of ARI.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Lung India
                Lung India
                LI
                Lung India : Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                0970-2113
                0974-598X
                Sep-Oct 2019
                : 36
                : 5
                : 422-433
                Affiliations
                [1 ] PD Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
                [2 ] Department of Respiratory Medicine, Apollo Clinic, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
                [3 ] Department of Respiratory Medicine, Mehta Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
                [4 ] Department of Medical Affairs, Wockhardt Limited, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Ashok Mahashur, PD Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: mahashuraa@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                LI-36-422
                10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_39_19
                6710962
                31464215
                Copyright: © 2019 Indian Chest Society

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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