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      Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, and Mood Stabilizers in Pregnancy: What Do We Know and How Should We Treat Pregnant Women with Depression : Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, and Mood Stabilizers in Pregnancy

      1 , 1 , 1

      Birth Defects Research

      Wiley

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          Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters.

          Using radioligand binding assays, we determined the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD's) for 37 antidepressants, three of their metabolites (desmethylcitalopram, desmethylsertraline, and norfluoxetine), some mood stabilizers, and assorted other compounds (some antiepileptics, Ca2+ channel antagonists, benzodiazepines, psychostimulants, antihistamines, and monoamines) for the human serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transporters. Among the compounds that we tested, mazindol was the most potent at the human norepinephrine and dopamine transporters with KD's of 0.45 +/- 0.03 nM and 8.1 +/- 0.4 nM, respectively. Sertraline (KD = 25 +/- 2 nM) and nomifensine (56 +/- 3 nM) were the two most potent antidepressants at the human dopamine transporter. We showed significant correlations for antidepressant affinities at binding to serotonin (R = 0.93), norepinephrine (R = 0.97), and dopamine (R = 0.87) transporters in comparison to their respective values for inhibiting uptake of monoamines into rat brain synaptosomes. These data are useful in predicting some possible adverse effects and drug-drug interactions of antidepressants and related compounds.
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            Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry.

            Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs is associated with a greater risk of major congenital malformations, but there is inadequate information on the comparative teratogenicity of individual antiepileptic drugs and the association with dose. We aimed to establish the risks of major congenital malformations after monotherapy exposure to four major antiepileptic drugs at different doses. The EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry is an observational cohort study representing a collaboration of physicians from 42 countries. We prospectively monitored pregnancies exposed to monotherapy with different doses of four common drugs: carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproic acid, or phenobarbital. Our primary endpoint was the rate of major congenital malformations detected up to 12 months after birth. We assessed pregnancy outcomes according to dose at the time of conception irrespective of subsequent dose changes. After excluding pregnancies that ended in spontaneous abortions or chromosomal or genetic abnormalities, those in which the women had treatment changes in the first trimester, and those involving other diseases or treatments that could affect fetal outcome, we assessed rates of major congenital malformations in 1402 pregnancies exposed to carbamazepine, 1280 on lamotrigine, 1010 on valproic acid, and 217 on phenobarbital. An increase in malformation rates with increasing dose at the time of conception was recorded for all drugs. Multivariable analysis including ten covariates in addition to treatment with antiepileptic drugs showed that the risk of malformations was greater with a parental history of major congenital malformations (odds ratio 4·4, 95% CI 2·06-9·23). We noted the lowest rates of malformation with less than 300 mg per day lamotrigine (2·0% [17 events], 95% CI 1·19-3·24) and less than 400 mg per day carbamazepine (3·4% [5 events], 95% CI 1·11-7·71). Compared with lamotrigine monotherapy at doses less than 300 mg per day, risks of malformation were significantly higher with valproic acid and phenobarbital at all investigated doses, and with carbamazepine at doses greater than 400 mg per day. The risk of major congenital malformations is influenced not only by type of antiepileptic drug, but also by dose and other variables, which should be taken into account in the management of epilepsy in women of childbearing potential. Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, UCB, Netherlands Epilepsy Foundation, Stockholm County Council, and ALF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Parental depression, maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy, and risk of autism spectrum disorders: population based case-control study

              Objective To study the association between parental depression and maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy with autism spectrum disorders in offspring. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Stockholm County, Sweden, 2001-07. Participants 4429 cases of autism spectrum disorder (1828 with and 2601 without intellectual disability) and 43 277 age and sex matched controls in the full sample (1679 cases of autism spectrum disorder and 16 845 controls with data on maternal antidepressant use nested within a cohort (n=589 114) of young people aged 0-17 years. Main outcome measure A diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, with or without intellectual disability. Exposures Parental depression and other characteristics prospectively recorded in administrative registers before the birth of the child. Maternal antidepressant use, recorded at the first antenatal interview, was available for children born from 1995 onwards. Results A history of maternal (adjusted odds ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.08) but not paternal depression was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring. In the subsample with available data on drugs, this association was confined to women reporting antidepressant use during pregnancy (3.34, 1.50 to 7.47, P=0.003), irrespective of whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors were reported. All associations were higher in cases of autism without intellectual disability, there being no evidence of an increased risk of autism with intellectual disability. Assuming an unconfounded, causal association, antidepressant use during pregnancy explained 0.6% of the cases of autism spectrum disorder. Conclusions In utero exposure to both SSRIs and non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors (tricyclic antidepressants) was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders, particularly without intellectual disability. Whether this association is causal or reflects the risk of autism with severe depression during pregnancy requires further research. However, assuming causality, antidepressant use during pregnancy is unlikely to have contributed significantly towards the dramatic increase in observed prevalence of autism spectrum disorders as it explained less than 1% of cases.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Teratology, Department of Medical Neurobiology; Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School; Jerusalem Israel
                Journal
                Birth Defects Research
                Birth Defects Research
                Wiley
                24721727
                July 17 2017
                July 17 2017
                July 17 2017
                : 109
                : 12
                : 933-956
                10.1002/bdr2.1079
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions

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