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      Targeting both IGF-1R and mTOR synergistically inhibits growth of renal cell carcinoma in vitro

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          Abstract

          Background

          Advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a poor prognosis, because it is relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Treatments with human interferon-α2b alone or in combination with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have led to only a modest improvement in clinical outcome. One observation made with mTOR inhibitors is that carcinomas can overcome these inhibitory effects by activating the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathway. Clinically, there is an association of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression in RCC and poor long-term patient survival. We have developed a humanized anti-IGF-IR monoclonal antibody, hR1, which binds to RCC, resulting in effective down-regulation of IGF-IR and moderate inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro. In this work, we evaluate the anti-tumor activity of two novel IGF-1R-targeting agents against renal cell carcinoma given alone or in combination with an mTOR inhibitor.

          Methods

          hR1 was linked by the DOCK-AND-LOCK™ (DNL™) method to four Fabs of hR1, generating Hex-hR1, or to four molecules of interferon-α2b, generating 1R-2b. Eight human RCC cell lines were screened for IGF-1R expression and sensitivity to treatment with hR1 in vitro. Synergy with an mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, was tested in a cell line (ACHN) with low sensitivity to hR1.

          Results

          Hex-hR1 induced the down-regulation of IGF-IR at 10-fold lower concentrations compared to the parental hR1. Sensitivity to growth inhibition mediated by hR1 and Hex-hR1 treatments correlated with IGF-1R expression (higher expression was more sensitive). The potency of 1R-2b to inhibit the in vitro growth of RCC was also demonstrated in two human cell lines, ACHN and 786-O, with EC 50–values of 63 and 48 pM, respectively. When combined with temsirolimus, a synergistic growth-inhibition with hR1, Hex-hR1, and 1R-2b was observed in ACHN cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM for hR1, 1 nM for Hex-hR1, and 2.6 nM for 1R-2b.

          Conclusions

          Both Hex-hR1 and 1R-2b proved to be more potent than parental hR1 in inhibiting growth of RCC in vitro. Synergy was achieved when each of the three hR1-based agents was combined with temsirolimus, suggesting a new approach for treating RCC.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: the combined effects of multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors.

           P Talalay,  T C Chou (1984)
          A generalized method for analyzing the effects of multiple drugs and for determining summation, synergism and antagonism has been proposed. The derived, generalized equations are based on kinetic principles. The method is relatively simple and is not limited by whether the dose-effect relationships are hyperbolic or sigmoidal, whether the effects of the drugs are mutually exclusive or nonexclusive, whether the ligand interactions are competitive, noncompetitive or uncompetitive, whether the drugs are agonists or antagonists, or the number of drugs involved. The equations for the two most widely used methods for analyzing synergism, antagonism and summation of effects of multiple drugs, the isobologram and fractional product concepts, have been derived and been shown to have limitations in their applications. These two methods cannot be used indiscriminately. The equations underlying these two methods can be derived from a more generalized equation previously developed by us (59). It can be shown that the isobologram is valid only for drugs whose effects are mutually exclusive, whereas the fractional product method is valid only for mutually nonexclusive drugs which have hyperbolic dose-effect curves. Furthermore, in the isobol method, it is laborious to find proper combinations of drugs that would produce an iso-effective curve, and the fractional product method tends to give indication of synergism, since it underestimates the summation of the effect of mutually nonexclusive drugs that have sigmoidal dose-effect curves. The method described herein is devoid of these deficiencies and limitations. The simplified experimental design proposed for multiple drug-effect analysis has the following advantages: It provides a simple diagnostic plot (i.e., the median-effect plot) for evaluating the applicability of the data, and provides parameters that can be directly used to obtain a general equation for the dose-effect relation; the analysis which involves logarithmic conversion and linear regression can be readily carried out with a simple programmable electronic calculator and does not require special graph paper or tables; and the simplicity of the equation allows flexibility of application and the use of a minimum number of data points. This method has been used to analyze experimental data obtained from enzymatic, cellular and animal systems.
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            Rapamycin induces feedback activation of Akt signaling through an IGF-1R-dependent mechanism.

            Rapamycin and several analogs, such as CCI-779 and RAD001, are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anticancer agents. In this study, we show that inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling by rapamycin leads to an increase of Akt phosphorylation in Rh30 and RD human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and xenografts, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II-treated C2C12 mouse myoblasts and IGF-II-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of S6K1 also results in an increase of Akt phosphorylation. These data suggest that mTOR/S6K1 inhibition either by rapamycin or small interfering RNA (siRNA) triggers a negative feedback loop, resulting in the activation of Akt signaling. We next sought to investigate the mechanism of this negative feedback regulation from mTOR to Akt. Suppression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and tuberous sclerosis complex-1 by siRNAs failed to abrogate rapamycin-induced upregulation of Akt phosphorylation in both Rh30 and RD cells. However, pretreatment with h7C10 antibody directed against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) led to a blockade of rapamycin-induced Akt activation. Combined mTOR and IGF-1R inhibition with rapamycin and h7C10 antibody, respectively, resulted in additive inhibition of cell growth and survival. These data suggest that rapamycin mediates Akt activation through an IGF-1R-dependent mechanism. Thus, combining an mTOR inhibitor and an IGF-1R antibody/inhibitor may be an appropriate strategy to enhance mTOR-targeted anticancer therapy.
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              Phase III trial of bevacizumab plus interferon alfa versus interferon alfa monotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: final results of CALGB 90206.

              Bevacizumab is an antibody that binds vascular endothelial growth factor and has activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) is the historic standard initial treatment for RCC. A prospective, randomized, phase III trial of bevacizumab plus IFN-alpha versus IFN-alpha monotherapy was conducted. Patients with previously untreated, metastatic clear cell RCC were randomly assigned to receive either bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks) plus IFN-alpha (9 million units subcutaneously three times weekly) or the same dose and schedule of IFN-alpha monotherapy in a multicenter phase III trial. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate, and safety. Seven hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled. The median OS time was 18.3 months (95% CI, 16.5 to 22.5 months) for bevacizumab plus IFN-alpha and 17.4 months (95% CI, 14.4 to 20.0 months) for IFN-alpha monotherapy (unstratified log-rank P = .097). Adjusting on stratification factors, the hazard ratio was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.01; stratified log-rank P = .069) favoring bevacizumab plus IFN-alpha. There was significantly more grade 3 to 4 hypertension (HTN), anorexia, fatigue, and proteinuria for bevacizumab plus IFN-alpha. Patients who developed HTN on bevacizumab plus IFN-alpha had a significantly improved PFS and OS versus patients without HTN. OS favored the bevacizumab plus IFN-alpha arm but did not meet the predefined criteria for significance. HTN may be a biomarker of outcome with bevacizumab plus IFN-alpha.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central
                1471-2407
                2013
                1 April 2013
                : 13
                : 170
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Immunomedics, Inc, 300 American Rd, Morris Plains, NJ 07950, USA
                [2 ]IBC Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 300 American Rd, Morris Plains, NJ 07950, USA
                [3 ]Center of Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Garden State Cancer Center, 300 American Rd, Morris Plains, NJ, 07950, USA
                Article
                1471-2407-13-170
                10.1186/1471-2407-13-170
                3623828
                23548153
                Copyright ©2013 Cardillo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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