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      A Case of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Patient with Coombs' Negative Hemolytic Anemia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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          Abstract

          Coombs' negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare disease which shares similar clinical and hematological features with Coombs' positive AIHA, but its exact frequency remains unknown. There have been few reports of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Coombs' negative AIHA associated with other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Since there is a well known association between LPDs and autoimmune phenomena, it is important to investigate the possibility of an underlying malignancy. We report a case of ITP and Coombs' negative AIHA associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

          Red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies are a relatively uncommon cause of anemia. However, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemolytic anemias, especially if the patient has a concomitant lymphoproliferative disorder, autoimmune disease, or viral or mycoplasmal infection. Classifications of AIHA include warm AIHA, cold agglutinin syndrome, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, mixed-type AIHA, and drug-induced AIHA. Characteristics of the autoantibodies are responsible for the various clinical entities. As a result, diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation and a serologic work-up. For each classification of AIHA, this review discusses the demographics, etiology, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, and treatment options. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic features.

            Fifty-two cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) were observed within a series of 1203 patients (4.3%) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) followed at a single institution. Nineteen were observed at the time of CLL diagnosis and 33 during the clinical follow-up. Ninety percent of the patients with CLL/AHA showed active CLL and 25% had been treated previously. The antierythrocyte autoantibody (AeAb) was an IgG in 87% of cases and an IgM in 13%. A lymphocyte count more than 60 x 10(9)/L (P <.00001), age above 65 years (P <.01), and male gender (P <.01) emerged as independent parameters that correlated significantly with an increased rate of AHA at CLL diagnosis. Patients previously treated with chlorambucil (CB) plus prednisone (PDN) and with fludarabine plus PDN showed a similar rate of AHA (1.8% and 2.5%, respectively). After steroid therapy associated with CB in case of active CLL, 70% of patients achieved the complete disappearance of the AeAb. The actuarial AHA relapse-free survival probability was 54% at 5 years and the median survival probability after AHA was 41 months. Infections represented the main cause of morbidity and mortality. IgG AHA and the occurrence of AHA at the same time of CLL diagnosis emerged as independent factors significantly correlated with a better survival probability of AHA/CLL patients. Taken together, this study indicates that in CLL, AHA is a rare event with no independent effect on survival for which steroids, associated with CB if required, and a careful management of infections may successfully control the 2 conditions. Cooperative studies are needed to better define the optimal steroid schedule and the therapeutic role of other immunosuppressive agents and splenectomy. (Blood. 2000;95:2786-2792)
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              Malignant lymphoma-associated autoimmune diseases--a descriptive epidemiological study.

              Lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases have some common aspects in their clinical appearance. We reviewed 940 patient charts with malignant lymphomas to assess the rate of associated autoimmune diseases. Of 421 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients (230 males, 191 females), 32 (7.6%) had an autoimmune disease (26 females, six males, mean age 48.3 years). The most common diagnosis was Sjögren's syndrome. The other cases were autoimmune skin diseases (5), thyroiditis (3), polymyositis (2), scleroderma (2), other musculoskeletal disorders (2), rheumatoid arthritis (1), vasculitis (1), undifferentiated collagenosis (1), colitis ulcerosa (1), autoimmune hepatitis (1), Addison's disease (1), and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (1). Of 519 Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (308 males, 211 females), an associated autoimmune disease occurred in 45 (8.6%) (25 females, 20 males, mean age 39.2 years). In 31 cases, we found autoimmune thyroid disorders, then came glomerulonephritis (3), immune thrombocytopenia (3), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (2), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (1), seronegative spondylarthritis (1), systemic lupus erythematosus (1), mixed connective tissue disease (1), scleroderma (1), and vasculitis (1). We also analyzed histology, choice of treatment, and sequence of appearance of the disease types. We found a difference between NHL and Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, since in NHL autoimmunity - mostly from Sjögren's syndrome - preceded the lymphoma diagnosis (70%), but in Hodgkin's the autoimmunity developed mainly after the treatment of malignancy. The relatively high prevalence of autoimmune diseases in malignant lymphomas has several explanations. Clinicians have to consider autoimmunity when treating lymphoproliferative disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Res Treat
                Cancer Res Treat
                CRT
                Cancer Research and Treatment : Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
                Korean Cancer Association
                1598-2998
                2005-9256
                March 2012
                31 March 2012
                : 44
                : 1
                : 69-72
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, National Police Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Police Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                [3 ]Department of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Soyon Kim, MD. Department of Internal Medicine, National Police Hospital, 123 Songi-ro, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-708, Korea. Tel: 82-2-3400-1204, Fax: 82-2-3400-1573, drsykim@ 123456nph.go.kr
                Article
                10.4143/crt.2012.44.1.69
                3322204
                22500164
                Copyright © 2012 by the Korean Cancer Association

                This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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