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      Scientific Opinion on Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons in Food

      EFSA Journal
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          The Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06: main results in terms of food consumption.

          The current paper aims to present the main results of the Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06. A cross-sectional study was performed. Households were randomly selected after geographical stratification of the national territory. Food consumption was assessed on three consecutive days through individual estimated dietary records. Italy. The final study sample comprised 3323 subjects (1501 males and 1822 females) aged 0.1 to 97.7 years belonging to 1329 households: fifty-two infants (0-2.9 years), 193 children (3-9.9 years), 247 teenagers (10-17.9 years), 2313 adults (18-64.9 years) and 518 elderly (65 years and above). Participation rate was 33 %. The mean ratio of estimated energy intake to estimated BMR was 1.41 in adults. Indicators of mean and high individual consumption are presented for fifteen large categories and fifty-one subcategories of foods and beverages, in the total population and in consumers, by age and sex categories. The overall consumption of fruit and vegetables was 418 g/d. The consumption of red meat was approximately 700 g/week, expressed as raw weight. Some specific aspects of the Italian food consumption pattern were confirmed: a large contribution from bread, pasta and pizza to cereals, from olive oil to fats and from wine to alcoholic beverages. The database obtained from the survey will be the key reference for Italian food consumption during the coming years and will be utilized for a variety of purposes including the assessment of nutrient intakes and risk analysis.
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            Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and mechanism of action.

            Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of widespread environmental carcinogens. Most of our knowledge of their mechanisms of metabolic activation to DNA-binding "ultimate carcinogenic" metabolites has come from analysis of the DNA interaction products formed by these highly reactive intermediates. Studies of their role in forming DNA-binding intermediates identical to those formed in vivo from the PAH itself have also allowed identification of the particular cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in activating various structural classes of carcinogenic PAHs. It has been established that PAHs, after metabolic activation in vivo, are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and, by inducing multiple mutations, may result in tumors. PAHs also cause changes in cellular gap-junction communication similar to those caused by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Thus, PAHs may also act through a promotional mechanism in addition to serving as tumor initiators. Previous studies on these mechanisms are described and summarized.
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              Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

              Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EFSA Journal
                EFS2
                Wiley-Blackwell
                18314732
                18314732
                June 2012
                June 2012
                : 10
                : 6
                Article
                10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2704
                65548d7e-f539-4511-8a4a-b58425fcef6b
                © 2012

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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