8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Baroreflex Sensitivity and Heart Rate Variability in the Identification of Patients at Risk for Life-Threatening Arrhythmias : Implications for Clinical Trials

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The need for accurate risk stratification is heightened by the expanding indications for the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) focused interest on patients with both depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the presence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). Meanwhile, the prospective study Autonomic Tone and Reflexes After Myocardial Infarctio (ATRAMI) demonstrated that markers of reduced vagal activity, such as depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) an heart rate variability (HRV), are strong predictors of cardiac mortality after myocardial infarction. We analyzed 1071 ATRAMI patients after myocardial infarction who had data on LVEF, 24-hour ECG recording, and BRS. During follow-up (21 +/- 8 months), 43 patients experienced cardiac death, 5 patients had episodes of sustained VT, and 30 patients experienced sudden death and/or sustained VT. NSVT, depressed BRS, or HRV were all significantly and independently associated with increased mortality. The combination of all 3 risk factor increased the risk of death by 22x. Among patients with LVEF<35%, despite the absence of NSVT, depressed BRS predicted higher mortality (18% versus 4.6%, P = 0.01). This is a clinically important finding because this grou constitutes 25% of all patients with depressed LVEF. For both cardiac and arrhythmic mortality, the sensitivity of lo BRS was higher than that of NSVT and HRV CONCLUSIONS: BRS and HRV contribute importantly and additionally to risk stratification. Particularly when LVEF is depressed, the analysis of BRS identifies a large number of patients at high risk for cardiac and arrhythmic mortalit who might benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy without disproportionately increasing the number of false-positives.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 6

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Prevalence, characteristics and prognostic value during long-term follow-up of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction in the thrombolytic era.

          The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics and the predictive value of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) for subsequent death and arrhythmic events after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Nonsustained VT has been linked to an increased risk for sudden death in coronary patients. It is unknown whether this parameter can be used for selection of high-risk patients to receive an implantable defibrillator for primary prevention of sudden death in patients shortly after AMI. In 325 consecutive infarct survivors, 24-h Holter monitoring was performed 10+/-6 days after AMI. All patients underwent coronary angiography, determination of left ventricular function and assessment of heart rate variability (HRV). Mean follow-up was 30+/-22 months. There was a low prevalence (9%) of nonsustained VT shortly after AMI. Nonsustained VT together with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was found in only 2.4% of patients. During follow-up, 25 patients reached one of the prospectively defined end points (primary composite end point of cardiac death, sustained VT or resuscitated ventricular fibrillation; secondary end point: arrhythmic events). Kaplan Meier event probability analyses revealed that only HRV, LVEF and status of the infarct-related artery were univariate predictors of death or arrhythmic events. The presence of nonsustained VT carried a relative risk of 2.6 for the primary study end point but was not a significant predictor if only arrhythmic events were considered. On multivariate analysis, only HRV, LVEF and the status of the infarct artery were found to be independently related to the primary study end point. There is a low prevalence of nonsustained VT shortly after AMI. Only 2% to 3% of all infarct survivors treated according to contemporary guidelines demonstrate both depressed LVEF and nonsustained VT. The predictive value of nonsustained VT for subsequent mortality and arrhythmic events is inferior to that of impaired autonomic tone, LVEF or infarct-related artery patency. Accordingly, the use of nonsustained VT to select patients for primary implantable cardioverter/defibrillator prevention trials shortly after AMI appears to be limited.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Prognostic value of baroreflex sensitivity testing after acute myocardial infarction.

            Disturbances of autonomic function are recognised in both the acute and convalescent phases of myocardial infarction. Recent studies have suggested that disordered autonomic function, particularly the loss of protective vagal reflexes, is associated with an increased incidence of arrhythmic deaths. The purpose of this study was to compare the value of differing prognostic indicators with measures of autonomic function and to assess the safety of arterial baroreflex testing early after infarction. As part of a prospective trial of risk stratification in post-infarction patients arterial baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, long term electrocardiographic recordings, exercise stress testing, and ejection fraction were recorded between days 7 and 10 in 122 patients with acute myocardial infarction. During a one year follow up period there were 10 arrhythmic events. Baroreflex sensitivity was appreciably reduced in these patients suffering arrhythmic events (1.73 SD (1.49) v 7.83 (4.5) ms/mm hg, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8 to 7.3, p = 0.0001). Significant correlations were noted with age (r = -0.68, p less than 0.001) but not left ventricular function. When baroreflex sensitivity was adjusted for the effects of age and ventricular function baroreflex sensitivity was still considerably reduced in the arrhythmic group (2.1 v 7.57 ms/mm Hg, p less than 0.0001). Depressed baroreflex sensitivity carried the highest relative risk for arrhythmic events (23.1, 95% CI 7.7 to 69.2) and was superior to other prognostic variables including left ventricular function (10.4, 95% CI 3.3 to 32.6) and heart rate variability (10.1, 95% CI 5.6 to 18.1). No major complications were noted with baroreflex testing and in particular no patients developed ischaemic or arrhythmic symptoms during the procedure. Disordered autonomic function as measured by depressed baroreflex sensitivity or reduced heart rate variability was associated with an increase incidence of arrhythmic events in post-infarction patients. Baroreflex testing can be safely performed in the immediate post-infarction period.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II): Design and Clinical Protocol

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                April 24 2001
                April 24 2001
                : 103
                : 16
                : 2072-2077
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Centro Medico di Montescano, Fondazione “Salvatore Maugeri” IRCCS, Montescano, Pavia, Italy (M.T.L.R., G.D.P., A.M.); the Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat, Medizinische Klinik IV, Kardiologie und Nephrologie, Frankfurt, Germany (S.H.H.); the Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Cardiology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Ariz (F.I.M.); the Division of Cardiology, Policlinico di Monza, Monza, Italy (A.M.); the Third Division of Internal Medicine,...
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.103.16.2072
                11319197
                © 2001

                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

                Comments

                Comment on this article