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      Rat RFRP-3 Alters Hypothalamic GHRH Expression and Growth Hormone Secretion but Does Not Affect KiSS-1 Gene Expression or the Onset of Puberty in Male Rats

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: RFRP-3 is a recently described neuropeptide that influences a variety of physiologic factors, including the inhibition of gonadotropin secretion and reproductive behaviors. We hypothesized that endogenous RFRP-3 could function to inhibit the onset of puberty in young male rats. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we first placed cannulas into the third ventricle of 24-day-old male rat pups. The cannulas were attached to osmotic minipumps that infused antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) against RFRP-3. Second, cannulas were placed in the ventricle of 35-day-old pups and infused with RFRP-3, NPFF (putatively, an alternative transcript of the RFRP gene), or vehicle. Results: No treatment altered the onset of puberty compared to controls. RFRP-3 ODN rats had significantly larger testes compared to control rats. Similarly, the RFRP-3 ODN-treated rats had a significant increase in plasma LH, but not FSH, compared to control rats. Rats infused with RFRP-3 exhibited significantly smaller testes compared to control rats. RFRP-3 rats also had a significant decrease in plasma LH levels. RFRP-3 infusion elicited a significant increase in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA and plasma growth hormone levels compared to control rats. Neither peptide had an effect on KiSS-1 mRNA expression. Conclusion: These data suggest that endogenous rat RFRP-3 does not affect the timing of puberty in male rats but may be associated with peripubertal rise in growth hormone secretion.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Kisspeptin Activation of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Neurons and Regulation of KiSS-1 mRNA in the Male Rat

          The KiSS-1 gene codes for a family of neuropeptides called kisspeptins which bind to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. To assess the possible effects of kisspeptins on gonadotropin secretion, we injected kisspeptin-52 into the lateral cerebral ventricles of adult male rats and found that kisspeptin-52 increased the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (p < 0.05). To determine whether the kisspeptin-52-induced stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion was mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), we pretreated adult male rats with a GnRH antagonist (acyline), then challenged the animals with intracerebroventricularly administered kisspeptin-52. The GnRH antagonist blocked the kisspeptin-52-induced increase in luteinizing hormone. To examine whether kisspeptins stimulate transcriptional activity in GnRH neurons, we administered kisspeptin-52 intracerebroventricularly and found by immunocytochemistry that 86% of the GnRH neurons coexpressed Fos 2 h after the kisspeptin-52 challenge, whereas fewer than 1% of the GnRH neurons expressed Fos following injection of the vehicle alone (p < 0.001). To assess whether kisspeptins can directly act on GnRH neurons, we used double-label in situ hybridization and found that 77% of the GnRH neurons coexpress GPR54 mRNA. Finally, to determine whether KiSS-1 gene expression is regulated by gonadal hormones, we measured KiSS-1 mRNA levels by single-label in situ hybridization in intact and castrated males and found significantly higher levels in the arcuate nucleus of castrates. These results demonstrate that GnRH neurons are direct targets for regulation by kisspeptins and that KiSS-1 mRNA is regulated by gonadal hormones, suggesting that KiSS-1 neurons play an important role in the feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion.
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            A novel avian hypothalamic peptide inhibiting gonadotropin release.

            The neuropeptide control of gonadotropin secretion at the level of the anterior pituitary gland is primarily through the stimulatory action of the hypothalamic decapeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which was originally isolated from mammals and subsequently from non-mammals. To date, however, an inhibitory peptide of gonadotropin release is unknown in vertebrates. Here we show, in a bird, that the hypothalamus also contains a novel peptide which inhibits gonadotropin release. Acetic acid extracts of quail brains were passed through C-18 reversed-phase cartridges, and then the retained material was subjected to the reversed-phase and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide was isolated from avian brain and shown to have the sequence Ser-Ile-Lys-Pro-Ser-Ala-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2). Cell bodies and terminals containing this peptide were localized immunohistochemically in the paraventricular nucleus and median eminence, respectively. This peptide inhibited, in a dose-related way, gonadotropin release from cultured quail anterior pituitaries. This is the first hypothalamic peptide inhibiting gonadotropin release reported in a vertebrate. We therefore term it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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              Increased hypothalamic GPR54 signaling: a potential mechanism for initiation of puberty in primates.

              To further study the role of GPR54 signaling in the onset of primate puberty, we used the monkey to examine the ability of kisspeptin-10 to elicit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) precociously, and we describe the expression of GPR54 and KiSS-1 in the hypothalamus during the peripubertal period. Agonadal juvenile male monkeys were implanted with a lateral cerebroventricular cannula and a jugular vein catheter. The responsiveness of the juvenile pituitary to endogenous GnRH release was heightened with a chronic pulsatile i.v. infusion of synthetic GnRH before kisspeptin-10 (112-121) injection. Intracerebroventricular (30 microg or 100 microg) or i.v. (100 microg) bolus injections of kisspeptin-10 elicited a robust GnRH discharge, as reflected by luteinizing hormone secretion, which was abolished by pretreatment with a GnRH-receptor antagonist. RNA was isolated from the hypothalamus of agonadal males before (juvenile) and after (pubertal) the pubertal resurgence of pulsatile GnRH release and from juvenile, early pubertal, and midpubertal ovary-intact females. KiSS-1 mRNA levels detected by real-time PCR increased with puberty in both male and female monkeys. In intact females, but not in agonadal males, GPR54 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus increased approximately 3-fold from the juvenile to midpubertal stage. Hybridization histochemistry indicated robust KiSS-1 and GPR54 mRNA expression in the region of the arcuate nucleus. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that GPR54 signaling by its cognate ligand in the primate hypothalamus may be activated at the end of the juvenile phase of development and may contribute to the pubertal resurgence of pulsatile GnRH release, the central drive for puberty.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2008
                November 2008
                15 July 2008
                : 88
                : 4
                : 305-315
                Affiliations
                Department of Biology and Program in Neuroscience, Hope College, Holland, Mich., USA
                Article
                145718 Neuroendocrinology 2008;88:305–315
                10.1159/000145718
                18628614
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 42, Pages: 11
                Categories
                GHRH, Somatostatin, Growth Hormone and IGF

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