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      Relación de la carga ácida de la dieta y el estado acido-base en niños con Enfermedad Renal Crónica Translated title: Relationship between diet acid load and acid-base status in children with Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          La progresión de la Enfermedad Renal Crónica (ERC) es acelerada por la acidosis metabólica, la cual puede ser agravada por la dieta. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la Carga Acida Potencial Renal (CAPR) de la dieta en niños con ERC y establecer su relación con el estado ácido base. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 26 pacientes (10 meses-17 años) con ERC atendidos en la consulta del Servicio de Nefrología del Hospital de Niños JM de los Ríos entre Junio 2014 y Enero 2016. Para la evaluación dietética se utilizaron: recordatorio de 24 horas y cuestionario de frecuencia. La CAPR fue calculada según Manz y Remer. Parámetros de laboratorio analizados: gases venosos, creatinina, sodio, potasio y cloro séricos. RESULTADOS: La CAPR fue de 16,11±10,6 mEq/día. Ninguno de los pacientes tuvo CAPR negativa. Los resultados para HCO3 y pH séricos fueron 20,46±4,5 mEq/l y 7,3±0,8 mEq/l respectivamente. No se encontró correlación significativa entre la CAPR y los parámetros ácido base, pero sí correlación positiva con la ingesta de proteínas (p=0,001), carnes (p=0,010), grasas (p=0,006) y cereales (p=0,022) y negativa con la ingesta de vegetales (p=0,032). 21 pacientes recibían bicarbonato de sodio como tratamiento alcalinizante sin lograr corregir la acidosis metabólica en la mayoría de los casos. CONCLUSIONES: La CAPR estuvo elevada en la mayoría de los pacientes. No se encontró correlación significativa entre la CAPR y los parámetros ácido base. Es importante la corrección de la acidosis metabólica en estos pacientes mediante bicarbonato de sodio y mayor ingesta de frutas y vegetales.

          Translated abstract

          Progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be accelerated by metabolic acidosis, which may be influenced by diet. The aim of this study was to determine the Potential Renal Acid Load (PRAL) in children with CKD and establish its relationship with acid-base status. METHODS: 26 patients (10 months - 17 years) with CKD who attended the outpatient clinic of the Department of Nephrology at the Children's Hospital JM de los Rios from June 2014 through January 2016 were included. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall and frequency questionnaire. PRAL was calculated according to Manz and Remer. Laboratory parameters analyzed were: venous gases, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium and chloride. RESULTS: PRAL was 16.11 ± 10.6 mEq/day. None of the patients had a negative PRAL. The results for serum HCO3 and pH were 20.46 ± 4.5 mEq/l and 7.3 ± 0.8 mEq/l respectively. No significant correlation was found between PRAL and acid-base parameters, although the correlation was significant with protein intake (p = 0.001), and also with meat (p = 0.010), fat (p = 0.006) and cereal (p = 0.022) intake. PRAL was negatively correlated with vegetable intake (p=0.032). 21 patients received sodium bicarbonate as alkalizing treatment without achieving metabolic acidosis control in most cases. CONCLUSIONS: PRAL was elevated in most patients. No significant correlation between PRAL and acid base parameters was found. It is important to achieve adequate metabolic acidosis control in these patients by means of sodium bicarbonate and increased intake of fruits and vegetables.

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          Most cited references75

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          KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease

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            A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in children derived from body length and plasma creatinine.

            Based on statistical analysis of data in 186 children, a formula was derived which allows accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine and body lenght (GFR(ml/min/1.73 sq m) = 0.55 length (cm)/Per (mg/dl). Its application to clearance data in a separate group of 223 children reveals excellent agreement with GFR estimated by the Ccr (r = .935) or Cin (r = .905). This formula should be useful for adjusting dosages of drugs excreted by the kidney and detecting significant changes in renal function.
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              Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status.

              Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr), and ESRD (CrCl <10 ml/min). Secondary end points were dietary protein intake, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, serum albumin, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Compared with the control group, decline in CrCl was slower with bicarbonate supplementation (5.93 versus 1.88 ml/min 1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001). Patients supplemented with bicarbonate were significantly less likely to experience rapid progression (9 versus 45%; relative risk 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.40; P < 0.0001). Similarly, fewer patients supplemented with bicarbonate developed ESRD (6.5 versus 33%; relative risk 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.40; P < 0.001). Nutritional parameters improved significantly with bicarbonate supplementation, which was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of progression of renal failure to ESRD and improves nutritional status among patients with CKD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                avpp
                Archivos Venezolanos de Puericultura y Pediatría
                Arch Venez Puer Ped
                Sociedad Venezolana de Puericultura y Pediatría (Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela )
                0004-0649
                September 2016
                : 79
                : 3
                : 92-98
                Affiliations
                [02] Caracas orgnameHospital de Niños José Manuel de los Ríos orgdiv1Servicio de Nutrición y Dietética
                [04] Caracas orgnameHospital de Niños José Manuel de los Ríos orgdiv1Servicio de Nefrología
                [01] Pto Ordaz Bolívar orgnameClínica Pto Ordaz
                [03] Caracas orgnameCentro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano. CANIA
                Article
                S0004-06492016000300003
                656639ca-1064-46a2-96e1-9ea50733cb2c

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 15 August 2016
                : 27 June 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela


                Carga Ácida Potencial Renal,PRAL,Enfermedad Renal Crónica,Acidosis metabólica,dieta,niños,Potential Renal Acid Load,Chronic Kidney Disease,Metabolic acidosis,diet,children

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