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      Examining patterns of multimorbidity, polypharmacy and risk of adverse drug reactions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional UK Biobank study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          This study aims: (1) to describe the pattern and extent of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in UK Biobank participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) to identify which comorbidities are associated with increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) resulting from polypharmacy.

          Design

          Cross-sectional.

          Setting

          Community cohort.

          Participants

          UK Biobank participants comparing self-reported COPD (n=8317) with no COPD (n=494 323).

          Outcomes

          Multimorbidity (≥4 conditions) and polypharmacy (≥5 medications) in participants with COPD versus those without. Risk of ADRs (taking ≥3 medications associated with falls, constipation, urinary retention, central nervous system (CNS) depression, bleeding or renal injury) in relation to the presence of COPD and individual comorbidities.

          Results

          Multimorbidity was more common in participants with COPD than those without (17% vs 4%). Polypharmacy was highly prevalent (52% with COPD taking ≥5 medications vs 18% in those without COPD). Adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic status, those with COPD were significantly more likely than those without to be prescribed ≥3 medications contributing to falls (OR 2.27, 95% CI 2.13 to 2.42), constipation (OR 3.42, 95% CI 3.10 to 3.77), urinary retention (OR 3.38, 95% CI 2.94 to 3.87), CNS depression (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.31 to 4.25), bleeding (OR 4.61, 95% CI 3.35 to 6.19) and renal injury (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.62). Concomitant cardiovascular disease was associated with the greatest risk of taking ≥3 medications associated with falls/renal injury. Concomitant mental health conditions were most strongly associated with medications linked with CNS depression/urinary retention/bleeding.

          Conclusions

          Multimorbidity is common in COPD and associated with high levels of polypharmacy. Co-prescription of drugs with various ADRs is common. Future research should examine the effects on healthcare outcomes of co-prescribing multiple drugs with similar potential ADRs. Clinical guidelines should emphasise assessment of multimorbidity and ADR risk.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society.

          This guideline is an official statement of the American College of Physicians (ACP), American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS). It represents an update of the 2007 ACP clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is intended for clinicians who manage patients with COPD. This guideline addresses the value of history and physical examination for predicting airflow obstruction; the value of spirometry for screening or diagnosis of COPD; and COPD management strategies, specifically evaluation of various inhaled therapies (anticholinergics, long-acting β-agonists, and corticosteroids), pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and supplemental oxygen therapy. This guideline is based on a targeted literature update from March 2007 to December 2009 to evaluate the evidence and update the 2007 ACP clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and management of stable COPD. RECOMMENDATION 1: ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS recommend that spirometry should be obtained to diagnose airflow obstruction in patients with respiratory symptoms (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). Spirometry should not be used to screen for airflow obstruction in individuals without respiratory symptoms (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 2: For stable COPD patients with respiratory symptoms and FEV(1) between 60% and 80% predicted, ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS suggest that treatment with inhaled bronchodilators may be used (Grade: weak recommendation, low-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 3: For stable COPD patients with respiratory symptoms and FEV(1) 50% predicted. (Grade: weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 7: ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS recommend that clinicians should prescribe continuous oxygen therapy in patients with COPD who have severe resting hypoxemia (Pao(2) ≤55 mm Hg or Spo(2) ≤88%) (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence).
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            Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with important chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. The present study analysed data from 20,296 subjects aged > or =45 yrs at baseline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The sample was stratified based on baseline lung function data, according to modified Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Comorbid disease at baseline and death and hospitalisations over a 5-yr follow-up were then searched for. Lung function impairment was found to be associated with more comorbid disease. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index and education, subjects with GOLD stage 3 or 4 COPD had a higher prevalence of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), hypertension (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0). Comorbid disease was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality that was worse in people with impaired lung function. Lung function impairment is associated with a higher risk of comorbid disease, which contributes to a higher risk of adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalisations.
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              The rising tide of polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions: population database analysis 1995–2010

              Background The escalating use of prescribed drugs has increasingly raised concerns about polypharmacy. This study aims to examine changes in rates of polypharmacy and potentially serious drug-drug interactions in a stable geographical population between 1995 and 2010. Methods This is a repeated cross-sectional analysis of community-dispensed prescribing data for all 310,000 adults resident in the Tayside region of Scotland in 1995 and 2010. The number of drug classes dispensed and the number of potentially serious drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in the previous 84 days were calculated, and age-sex standardised rates in 1995 and 2010 compared. Patient characteristics associated with receipt of ≥10 drugs and with the presence of one or more DDIs were examined using multilevel logistic regression to account for clustering of patients within primary care practices. Results Between 1995 and 2010, the proportion of adults dispensed ≥5 drugs doubled to 20.8%, and the proportion dispensed ≥10 tripled to 5.8%. Receipt of ≥10 drugs was strongly associated with increasing age (20–29 years, 0.3%; ≥80 years, 24.0%; adjusted OR, 118.3; 95% CI, 99.5–140.7) but was also independently more common in people living in more deprived areas (adjusted OR most vs. least deprived quintile, 2.36; 95% CI, 2.22–2.51), and in people resident in a care home (adjusted OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.65–3.13). The proportion with potentially serious drug-drug interactions more than doubled to 13% of adults in 2010, and the number of drugs dispensed was the characteristic most strongly associated with this (10.9% if dispensed 2–4 drugs vs. 80.8% if dispensed ≥15 drugs; adjusted OR, 26.8; 95% CI 24.5–29.3). Conclusions Drug regimens are increasingly complex and potentially harmful, and people with polypharmacy need regular review and prescribing optimisation. Research is needed to better understand the impact of multiple interacting drugs as used in real-world practice and to evaluate the effect of medicine optimisation interventions on quality of life and mortality. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0322-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                bmjopen
                bmjopen
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2044-6055
                2018
                14 January 2018
                : 8
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] departmentGeneral Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing , University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK
                [2 ] departmentSchool of Mathematics and Statistics , University of Glasgow , Glasgow, UK
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Frances S Mair; frances.mair@ 123456glasgow.ac.uk
                Article
                bmjopen-2017-018404
                10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018404
                5781016
                29332840
                © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000589, Chief Scientist Office;
                Categories
                Respiratory Medicine
                Research
                1506
                1731
                Custom metadata
                unlocked

                Medicine

                multimorbidity, polypharmacy, chronic airways disease, adverse events

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