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      Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study.

      The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state.

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          Most cited references21

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          High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey.

          There has been no reported national survey of diabetes in India in the last three decades, although several regional studies show a rising prevalence of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in six major cities, covering all the regions of the country. Using a stratified random sampling method, 11216 subjects (5288 men; 5928 women) aged 20 years or above, representative of all socio-economic strata, were tested by OGTT. Demographic, anthropometric, educational and social details were recorded using a standard proforma. Physical activity was categorised using a scoring system. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Glucose tolerance was classified using the 2-h values (WHO criteria). Prevalence estimations were made taking into account the stratified sampling procedure. Group comparisons were done by t-test or analysis of variance or Z-test as relevant. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to study the association of variables with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Age standardised prevalences of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were 12.1% and 14.0% respectively, with no gender difference. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance showed increasing trend with age. Subjects under 40 years of age had a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance than diabetes (12.8% vs 4.6%, p < 0.0001). Diabetes showed a positive and independent association with age, BMI, WHR, family history of diabetes, monthly income and sedentary physical activity. Age, BMI and family history of diabetes showed associations with impaired glucose tolerance. This national study shows that the prevalence of diabetes is high in urban India. There is a large pool of subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at a high risk of conversion to diabetes.
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            Urban rural differences in prevalence of self-reported diabetes in India--the WHO-ICMR Indian NCD risk factor surveillance.

            Recent reports show strikingly high prevalence of diabetes among urban Asian Indians; however, there are very few studies comparing urban, peri-urban and rural prevalence rates of diabetes and their risk factors at the national level. This study is a part of the national non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factor surveillance conducted in different geographical locations (North, South, East, West/Central) in India between April 2003 and March 2005. A total of 44,523 individuals (age: 15-64 years) inclusive of 15,239 from urban, 15,760 from peri-urban/slum and 13,524 from rural areas were recruited. Major risk factors were studied using modified WHO STEPS approach. Diabetes was diagnosed based on self-reported diabetes diagnosed by a physician. The lowest prevalence of self-reported diabetes was recorded in rural (3.1%) followed by peri-urban/slum (3.2%) and the highest in urban areas (7.3%, odds ratio (OR) for urban areas: 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.21-2.79, p<0.001). Urban residents with abdominal obesity and sedentary activity had the highest prevalence of self-reported diabetes (11.3%) while rural residents without abdominal obesity performing vigorous activity had the lowest prevalence (0.7%). In conclusion, this nation-wide NCD risk factor surveillance study shows that the prevalence of self-reported diabetes is higher in urban, intermediate in peri-urban and lowest in rural areas. Urban residence, abdominal obesity and physical inactivity are the risk factors associated with diabetes in this study.
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              Incidence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and Predictors of Progression Among Asian Indians: 10-Year Follow-up of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES).

              There are few data on the incidence rates of diabetes and prediabetes (dysglycemia) in Asian Indians. This article presents the incidence of diabetes and prediabetes and the predictors of progression in a population-based Asian Indian cohort.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                28601585
                10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30174-2

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