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      The combination of NPK fertilizer and deltamethrin insecticide favors the proliferation of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) Translated title: L’association de l’engrais NPK et de l’insecticide deltaméthrine favorise la prolifération d’ Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) resistants aux pyréthrinoïdes

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          In this laboratory study, we investigated how the biological cycle of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (VKPR strain) would be like when grew in an environment containing more or less plant matter (2.5 or 5 g/l) and fertilizer (8-12-8 or 17-23-17 mg/l). Half of the environments studied were not exposed to insecticide (control) whereas the other half was submitted to deltamethrin treatment at the concentration of 0.015 mg/l. The bioassays showed that 2.5 g/l of plant matter in water are not sufficient to feed the hundred larvae, each breeding site contains. Treating these breeding sites with deltamethrin reversed the situation as it decreased the competition for food resources and allowed the surviving larvae to share the small amount of food enabling them to pursue their development until adults. If the introduction of NPK in untreated sites has not improved the nutritive qualities of the water, in the treated sites it multiplied the number of emerging adults by 2.5. In the waters containing 5 g/l of plant matter, the larvae did not undergo feeding competition and the impact of insecticide followed of a more traditional selection scheme that expressed itself by a lower number of emerging adults. In these environments treated or nontreated where plant matter is abundant, adding NPK brings food supplement to the larvae therefore increases the survival rate of An. gambiae. To conclude, whether in habitats with little or much plant matter, NPK presence in water results in larger adults with generally, more soluble proteins.

          Translated abstract

          Dans cette étude de laboratoire, les auteurs ont étudié le cycle biologique d ’Anopheles gambiae s.s. résistant aux pyréthrinoïdes (souche VKPR) selon que celui-ci se développe dans un environnement plus ou moins riche en matière végétale (MV = 2,5 et 5 g/l) et en engrais NPK (8-12-8 et 17-23-17 mg/l). La moitié des environnements composés n’a subi aucune pression de sélection (gîtes témoins) alors que l’autre moitié a fait l’objet d’un traitement à la deltaméthrine à la concentration de 0,015 mg/l. Les essais ont montré que 2,5 g de MV par litre d’eau ne suffisent pas à nourrir la centaine de larves contenue dans chaque gîte. Le fait de traiter ces gîtes avec la deltaméthrine inverse toutefois la situation en donnant aux larves survivantes l’occasion de se partager le peu de nourriture disponible et de poursuivre ainsi leur développement jusqu’au stade adulte. Si l’apport en NPK dans les gîtes non traités n’a pas amélioré les qualités nutritives des eaux, cet apport dans les gîtes traités a multiplié par 2,5 le nombre des adultes émergents. Dans les eaux contenant 5 g de MV par litre, les larves n’ont pas subi de stress alimentaire et l’impact de l’insecticide a suivi un schéma de sélection plus classique qui s’est exprimé par une réduction du nombre des adultes émergents. Dans ces environnements (traités ou non) où abonde la matière organique, l’ajout de NPK apporte aux larves un complément nutritionnel qui augmente plus encore le taux de survie d ’An. gambiae. Enfin, que ce soit dans les milieux pauvres ou riches en MV, la présence de NPK dans l’eau engendre des adultes plus gros et généralement plus riches en protéines solubles.

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          Most cited references 14

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          A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding

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            Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: what are the implications for malaria control?

            The use of pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vector control has increased dramatically in the past decade through the scale up of insecticide treated net distribution programmes and indoor residual spraying campaigns. Inevitably, the major malaria vectors have developed resistance to these insecticides and the resistance alleles are spreading at an exceptionally rapid rate throughout Africa. Although substantial progress has been made on understanding the causes of pyrethroid resistance, remarkably few studies have focused on the epidemiological impact of resistance on current malaria control activities. As we move into the malaria eradication era, it is vital that the implications of insecticide resistance are understood and strategies to mitigate these effects are implemented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The role of agricultural use of insecticides in resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Burkina Faso.

              Agricultural use of insecticides is involved in the selection of resistance to these compounds in field populations of mosquitoes in Burkina Faso. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to permethrin and DDT in cotton-growing and urban areas, but susceptible in areas with limited insecticide selection pressure (rice fields and control areas). Nevertheless, resistance to these insecticides was observed in a village on the outskirts of the rice fields at the end of the rainy season, suggesting that the latter population of mosquitoes had migrated from the surrounding cotton villages into the rice fields. A seasonal variation of resistance observed in the cotton-growing area is related to the distribution of the molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae, since resistance to pyrethroids has so far only been reported in the S form. Pyrethroid resistance in west African An. gambiae was conferred by target site insensitivity through a knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutation, which was present at high frequencies in mosquitoes in the cotton-growing and urban areas.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                May 2012
                15 May 2012
                : 19
                : 2 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/02 )
                : 159-164
                [1 ] Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs, Écologie, Génétique, Évolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), Laboratoire de Lutte contre les Insectes Nuisibles (LIN) 911, avenue Agropolis BP 64501 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5 France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Frédéric Darriet. Tel.: 33 (0)4 67 04 19 24 – Fax: 33 (0)4 67 54 20 44. E-mail: frederic.darriet@
                parasite2012192p159 10.1051/parasite/2012192159
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 6
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