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Science and health for all children with cancer

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      Abstract

      Each year ~429,000 children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 years are expected to develop cancer. Five-year survival rates exceed 80% for the 45,000 children with cancer in high-income countries (HICs) but are less than 30% for the 384,000 children in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). Improved survival rates in HICs have been achieved through multidisciplinary care and research, with treatment regimens using mostly generic medicines and optimized risk stratification. Children’s outcomes in LMICs can be improved through global collaborative partnerships that help local leaders adapt effective treatments to local resources and clinical needs, as well as address common problems such as delayed diagnosis and treatment abandonment. Together, these approaches may bring within reach the global survival target recently set by the World Health Organization: 60% survival for all children with cancer by 2030.

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      Most cited references 87

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        Immune Checkpoint Inhibition for Hypermutant Glioblastoma Multiforme Resulting From Germline Biallelic Mismatch Repair Deficiency.

        Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is incurable with current therapies. Biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (bMMRD) is a highly penetrant childhood cancer syndrome often resulting in GBM characterized by a high mutational burden. Evidence suggests that high mutation and neoantigen loads are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibition.
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          Recommendations for the evaluation of risk and prophylaxis of tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) in adults and children with malignant diseases: an expert TLS panel consensus.

          Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency characterized by metabolic abnormalities including hyperuricaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hyperkalaemia and hypocalcaemia. These metabolic complications predispose the cancer patient to clinical toxicities including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, neurological complications and potentially sudden death. With the increased availability of newer therapeutic targeted agents, such as rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase), there are no published guidelines on the risk classification of TLS for individual patients at risk of developing this syndrome. We convened an international TLS expert consensus panel to develop guidelines for a medical decision tree to assign low, intermediate and high risk to patients with cancer at risk for TLS. Risk factors included biological evidence of laboratory TLS (LTLS), proliferation, bulk and stage of malignant tumour and renal impairment and/or involvement at the time of TLS diagnosis. An international TLS consensus expert panel of paediatric and adult oncologists, experts in TLS pathophysiology and experts in TLS prophylaxis and management, developed a final model of low, intermediate and high risk TLS classification and associated TLS prophylaxis recommendations.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Science
            Science
            American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
            0036-8075
            1095-9203
            March 14 2019
            March 15 2019
            March 14 2019
            March 15 2019
            : 363
            : 6432
            : 1182-1186
            10.1126/science.aaw4892
            © 2019

            http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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