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      Efficiency of two nitrification inhibitors (dicyandiamide and 3, 4-dimethypyrazole phosphate) on soil nitrogen transformations and plant productivity: a meta-analysis

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 2 , a , 1

      Scientific Reports

      Nature Publishing Group

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          Abstract

          Dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3, 4-dimethypyrazole phosphate (DMPP) are often claimed to be efficient in regulating soil N transformations and influencing plant productivity, but the difference of their performances across field sites is less clear. Here we applied a meta-analysis approach to compare effectiveness of DCD and DMPP across field trials. Our results showed that DCD and DMPP were equally effective in altering soil inorganic N content, dissolve inorganic N (DIN) leaching and nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions. DCD was more effective than DMPP on increasing plant productivity. An increase of crop yield by DMPP was generally only observed in alkaline soil. The cost and benefit analysis (CBA) showed that applying fertilizer N with DCD produced additional revenues of $109.49 ha −1 yr −1 for maize farms, equivalent to 6.02% increase in grain revenues. In comparisons, DMPP application produced less monetary benefit of $15.67 ha −1 yr −1. Our findings showed that DCD had an advantage of bringing more net monetary benefit over DMPP. But this may be weakened by the higher toxicity of DCD than DMPP especially after continuous DCD application. Alternatively, an option related to net monetary benefit may be achieved through applying DMPP in alkaline soil and reducing the cost of purchasing DMPP products.

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          Most cited references 8

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          A high-resolution assessment on global nitrogen flows in cropland.

          Crop production is the single largest cause of human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle. We present a comprehensive assessment of global nitrogen flows in cropland for the year 2000 with a spatial resolution of 5 arc-minutes. We calculated a total nitrogen input (IN) of 136.60 trillion grams (Tg) of N per year, of which almost half is contributed by mineral nitrogen fertilizers, and a total nitrogen output (OUT) of 148.14 Tg of N per year, of which 55% is uptake by harvested crops and crop residues. We present high-resolution maps quantifying the spatial distribution of nitrogen IN and OUT flows, soil nitrogen balance, and surface nitrogen balance. The high-resolution data are aggregated at the national level on a per capita basis to assess nitrogen stress levels. The results show that almost 80% of African countries are confronted with nitrogen scarcity or nitrogen stress problems, which, along with poverty, cause food insecurity and malnutrition. The assessment also shows a global average nitrogen recovery rate of 59%, indicating that nearly two-fifths of nitrogen inputs are lost in ecosystems. More effective management of nitrogen is essential to reduce the deleterious environmental consequences.
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            A meta-analysis of experimental warming effects on terrestrial nitrogen pools and dynamics.

            Global warming may have profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of warming on ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics is not available. Here, we compiled data of 528 observations from 51 papers and carried out a meta-analysis of experimental warming effects on 13 variables related to terrestrial N pools and dynamics. We found that, on average, net N mineralization and net nitrification rate were increased by 52.2 and 32.2%, respectively, under experimental warming treatment. N pools were also increased by warming, although the magnitude of this increase was less than that of N fluxes. Soil microbial N and N immobilization were not changed by warming, probably because microbes are limited by carbon sources. Grassland and shrubland/heathland were less responsive to warming than forest, probably because the reduction of soil moisture by warming offset the temperature effect in these areas. Soil heating cable and all-day treatment appeared to be the most effective method on N cycling among all treatment methods. Results of this meta-analysis are useful for better understanding the response of N cycling to global warming and the underlying mechanism of warming effects on plants and ecosystem functions.
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              Mineral-nitrogen leaching and ammonia volatilization from a rice-rapeseed system as affected by 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate.

              3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) was validated as an effective nitrification inhibitor to reduce nitrate leaching. Its effects on ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization were not clear, especially on farmland scale with crop rotations. In this study, on-farm experiments at the Jiaxing (JX) and Yuhang (YH) sites in Taihu Lake Basin, China were conducted to evaluate the effect of DMPP application on mineral nitrogen (N) (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) leaching and NH(3) volatilization losses in a rice-rapeseed cropping system. Treatments included urea alone (UA), urea + 1% DMPP (UD), and no fertilizer (CK). The results show that DMPP reduced NO(3)-N leaching fluxes by 44.9 to 59.9% and increased NH(4)-N leaching fluxes by 13.0 to 33.3% at two sites during rice and rape seasons compared with urea alone. Reductions in mineral-N leaching fluxes by DMPP in two seasons at the JX and YH sites were 9.5 and 14.3 kg N ha(-1), respectively, compared with UA treatment. The application of DMPP had no significant effects on NH(3) volatilization loss fluxes at either site. The rice and rapeseed yields were 5.3 to 7.4% higher in UD plots than in UA plots at two sites. These results that indicate DMPP could reduce leaching losses of mineral-N from crop fields and promote grain yields by conserving more applied N in soil in rice-rapeseed rotation systems.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shenyang 110016, Liaoning, China
                [2 ]University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100049, China
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shenyang 110164, Liaoning, China
                Author notes
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                23 February 2016
                2016
                : 6
                26902689 4763264 srep22075 10.1038/srep22075
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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