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      Gyrodactylus magadiensis n. sp. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) parasitising the gills of Alcolapia grahami (Perciformes, Cichlidae), a fish inhabiting the extreme environment of Lake Magadi, Kenya Translated title: Gyrodactylus magadiensis n. sp. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae), parasite des branchies d’ Alcolapia grahami (Perciformes, Cichlidae), un poisson habitant l’environnement extrême du lac Magadi au Kenya

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Lake Magadi, Alcolapia grahami, Gyrodactylus, Kenya, Soda Lake

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          Abstract

          A new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 is described from the gills of Alcolapia grahami, a tilapian fish endemic to Lake Magadi. This alkaline soda lake in the Rift Valley in Kenya is an extreme environment with pH as high as 11, temperatures up to 42 °C, and diurnal fluctuation between hyperoxia and virtual anoxia. Nevertheless, gyrodactylid monogeneans able to survive these hostile conditions were detected from the gills the Magadi tilapia. The worms were studied using light microscopy, isolated sclerites observed using scanning electron microscopy, and molecular techniques used to genetically characterize the specimens. The gyrodactylid was described as Gyrodactylus magadiensis n. sp. and could be distinguished from other Gyrodactylus species infecting African cichlid fish based on the comparatively long and narrow hamuli, a ventral bar with small rounded anterolateral processes and a tongue-shaped posterior membrane, and marginal hooks with slender sickles which are angled forward, a trapezoid to square toe, rounded heel, a long bridge prior to reaching marginal sickle shaft, and a long lateral edge of the toe. The species is also distinct from all other Gyrodactylus taxa based on the ITS region of rDNA (ITS1–5.8s–ITS2), strongly supporting the designation of a new species. These findings represent the second record of Gyrodactylus from Kenya, with the description of G. magadiensis bringing the total number of Gyrodactylus species described from African cichlids to 18.

          Translated abstract

          Une nouvelle espèce de Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 est décrite à partir des branchies d’ Alcolapia grahami, un tilapia endémique du lac Magadi. Ce lac de soude alcaline dans la vallée du Rift au Kenya est un environnement extrême avec un pH allant jusqu’à 11, des températures allant jusqu’à 42 °C et des fluctuations diurnes entre l’hyperoxie et l’anoxie virtuelle. Néanmoins, des Monogènes Gyrodactylidae capables de survivre dans ces conditions hostiles ont été détectés sur les branchies du tilapia de Magadi. Les vers ont été étudiés par microscopie optique, les sclérites isolés ont été observés au microscope électronique à balayage et des techniques moléculaires ont été utilisées pour caractériser génétiquement les spécimens. Le gyrodactylidé est décrit comme étant Gyrodactylus magadiensis n. sp. et se distingue des autres espèces de Gyrodactylus infectant les cichlidés d’Afrique grâce à ses hamuli relativement longs et étroits, à une barre ventrale avec de petits processus antérolatéraux arrondis et à une membrane postérieure en forme de langue, ainsi qu’à des crochets marginaux à faucilles minces inclinées vers l’avant, un trapèze à bout carré, un talon arrondi, un long pont avant d’atteindre la faucille marginale et un long bord latéral de l’extrémité. L’espèce est également distincte de tous les autres taxons de Gyrodactylus sur la base sur la région ITS de l’ADNr (ITS1–5.8s–ITS2), ce qui soutient fortement la désignation d’une nouvelle espèce. Ces découvertes représentent la seconde mention d’un Gyrodactylus au Kenya, et la description de G. magadiensis amène à 18 le nombre total d’espèces de Gyrodactylus décrites parmi les cichlidés d’Afrique.

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          Most cited references 71

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          Radiocarbon dating of East african lake levels.

          The fluctuations of the key East African lakes discussed are summarized in Fig. 4 which also includes the available evidence from Lake Rukwa (42) and Lake Chad (43) Exceot for Lake Victoria, all of these now lack surface outlets and are situated in much drier climates than the major lakes of the Western Rift Valley, which remain filled to their overflow levels. The apparent differendes among the fluctuations of the lakes are partly due to differendes in the nature of the evidence or the intensity of research or both, although there must also have been important local differences in the histories of the lakes Yet the consistencies are far more striking, most notably the coincidence of early Holocene high stands. Between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago, it seems that lakes in many parts of tropical Africa were greatly enlarged. Where evidence for the previous span of time is well resolved, it appears that transgressions leading to this high stand began about 12,000 years ago, and evidende from three basins (Victoria, Nakuru, and Chad) indicates a pause or minor recession just at or before 10,000 years ago. Wherever information is available for the period preceding 12,000 years ago, it can consistentlybe shown that lakes were much small-er . Several basins (Rudolf, Nakuru, and Chad) also show traces of much earlier phases of lake expansion. which are not yet well dated but which all occurred more then 20,000 years ago. The Holocene record subsequent to the maximum of 10,00 to 8,000 years ago is more complex. Three basins (Rudolf, Nakuru, and Chad) show an apparently concordant, positive oscillation at some point between 6000 and 4000 years ago, but it is uncertain how widely this episode is represented. Although many of these lakes that are now closed filled to overflowing at least once during the late Quaternary, it is evident from Fig. 4 that the periods of expansion were short-lived compared with phases of contraction to levels near those of today. This pattern may be in accord with fragmentary evidence from lower and middle Pleistocene formations, such as those of Olduvai(44)and Paninj (45), within which some relatively short-term lake expansions can be documented, but which lack evidence for any marked long-term departure from a balance of evaporation and precipitation similar to the present one Further, this pattern of brief moist pulsations, with a duration of perhaps 2000 to 5000 years, is also suggested by other late Pleistocene and Holocene sequences (based primarily on geomorphological and palynological evidence) from the Saharan area, Angola, and South Africa (46). In default of radiometric dating, such complex successions of relatively brief moist intervals provide few stratigraphic markers of broad applicability. This, together with the fact that vegetation, weathering processes, montane glaciers, lake size, lake salinity, and so forth are all likely to reflect the diverse aspects of Climatic change differently, underscores the strictures of Cooke (2) and Flint (3) against the use of pluvials and intrlvasas a basis for subdividing Quaternary time in Africa. Positive correlations between high-latitude glacial advances or maxima and intervals of high lake levels have been demonstrated or suggested for many areas of mid-latitude North America and Eurasia (47), and similar patterns have often been regarded as probable for tropical Africa as well. However, the evidence summarized above shows a notable lack of such correlations for the tropical lakes considered here. If glaciation and tropical lake levels were connected at all, then a far more complex-delayed, multiplefactor, or inverse-relationship must be sought for the late Quaternary (48). This renders the introduction of new climato-stratigraphic terms such as hypothermal and interstadial (49) of questionable value in East Africa. Further, whereas the so-called pluvial lakes of higher latitudes were probably due primarily to reduced evaporation (50), our computations for the early Holocene lakes Nakuru and Naivasha, as well as for the oscillations of Lake Rudolf and Lake Victoria in recent decades, suggest that many or most of the high tropical lake levels where associated with a modest but significant increase in precipitation.
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            The Chemical Composition of African Lake Waters

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              Hydrochemistry of the Lake Magadi basin, Kenya

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                20 December 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 Johannesburg South Africa
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: aoldewage@ 123456uj.ac.za
                Article
                parasite190103 10.1051/parasite/2019077
                10.1051/parasite/2019077
                6924288
                31859621
                © Q.M. Dos Santos et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 72, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Article

                soda lake, lake magadi, alcolapia grahami, gyrodactylus, kenya

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