The Chinese fauna of the family Gasteruptiidae is revised, keyed and fully illustrated for the first time. Only one genus of this family, Gasteruption Latreille, 1796, is recorded from China. In total 28 valid species of the genus Gasteruption are recognized. Six species are new to science ( Gasteruption angulatum sp. n., Gasteruption assectoides sp. n., Gasteruption coloratum sp. n., Gasteruption latitibia sp. n., Gasteruption sinepunctatum sp. n. and Gasteruption strigosum sp. n.) and eight species are reported new for China ( Gasteruption bimaculatum Pasteels, 1958, Gasteruption birmanense Pasteels, 1958, Gasteruption dimidiatum Semenov, 1892, Gasteruption formilis Alekseev, 1995, Gasteruption subhamatum Pasteels, 1958, Gasteruption tonkinense Pasteels, 1958, Gasteruption tournieri Schletterer, 1885, Gasteruption transversiceps Pasteels, 1958). Three new synonyms are proposed: Gasteruption curiosum Pasteels, 1958, of Gasteruption amoyense Pasteels, 1958; Gasteruption sinense var. minus Kieffer, 1924, with Gasteruption japonicum Cameron, 1888,and Gasteruption sinense Kieffer, 1924, of Gasteruption sinarum Kieffer, 1911. Lectotypes are designated for Gasteruption corniculigerum Enderlein, 1913, Gasteruption sinense Kieffer, 1924, and Gasteruption transversiceps Pasteels, 1958. Gasteruption bihamatum Kieffer, 1911, previously reported from South China, is a South American species.