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      Association between temperature, sunlight hours and alcohol consumption

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      PLoS ONE

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          Abstract

          Background

          Alcohol is a major risk factor for liver cirrhosis. Recently, it was proposed that colder climate might causally lead to increased consumption of alcohol.

          Methods

          We performed an ecologic study, using monthly updated data on mean temperature, sunlight hours and alcohol consumption from ten regions in Sweden, using publicly available data. A generalised additive model, adjusted for region, was applied to examine the association between mean temperature and mean sunlight hours with mean alcohol consumption.

          Results

          We found a non-linear inverse association between mean monthly temperature and mean alcohol consumption, suggesting that warmer temperature was associated with increased alcohol consumption and colder temperature with a decreased consumption. We found no association between mean sunlight hours and alcohol consumption. Consumption was highest during public holidays.

          Conclusions

          We found no association between a colder climate and increased alcohol consumption. Socio-economic factors are likely to explain the suggested association.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Colder weather and fewer sunlight hours increase alcohol consumption and alcoholic cirrhosis worldwide

          Risk of alcoholic cirrhosis is determined by genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to investigate if climate has a causal effect on alcohol consumption and its weight on alcoholic cirrhosis. We collected extensive data from 193 sovereign countries as well as 50 states and 3,144 counties in the United States. Data sources included World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, and the Institute on Health Metrics and Evaluation. Climate parameters comprised Koppen-Geiger classification, average annual sunshine hours, and average annual temperature. Alcohol consumption data, pattern of drinking, health indicators, and alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) of cirrhosis were obtained. The global cohort revealed an inverse correlation between mean average temperature and average annual sunshine hours with liters of annual alcohol consumption per capita (Spearman's rho -0.5 and -0.57, respectively). Moreover, the percentage of heavy episodic drinking and total drinkers among population inversely correlated with temperature -0.45 and -0.49 (P < 0.001) and sunshine hours -0.39 and -0.57 (P < 0.001). Importantly, AAF was inversely correlated with temperature -0.45 (P < 0.001) and sunshine hours -0.6 (P < 0.001). At a global level, all included parameters in the univariable and multivariable analysis showed an association with liters of alcohol consumption and drinkers among population once adjusted by potential confounders. In the multivariate analysis, liters of alcohol consumption associated with AAF. In the United States, colder climates showed a positive correlation with the age-standardized prevalence of heavy and binge drinkers. Conclusion: These results suggest that colder climates may play a causal role on AAF mediated by alcohol consumption.
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            Don't Blame It on the Sunshine, Don't Blame It on the Moonlight, Don't Blame It on Good Times: Blame It on the Sociocultural Factors

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              Author and article information

              Contributors
              Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
              Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
              Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
              Role: Editor
              Journal
              PLoS One
              PLoS ONE
              plos
              plosone
              PLoS ONE
              Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
              1932-6203
              30 September 2019
              2019
              : 14
              : 9
              Affiliations
              [1 ] Division of Hepatology, Department of Upper GI, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
              [2 ] Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
              [3 ] Unit of Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
              Columbia University, UNITED STATES
              Author notes

              Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

              Article
              PONE-D-19-04161
              10.1371/journal.pone.0223312
              6768460
              31568515
              © 2019 Hagström et al

              This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

              Page count
              Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Pages: 5
              Product
              Funding
              The authors received no specific funding for this work.
              Categories
              Research Article
              Biology and Life Sciences
              Nutrition
              Diet
              Alcohol Consumption
              Medicine and Health Sciences
              Nutrition
              Diet
              Alcohol Consumption
              Physical Sciences
              Physics
              Electromagnetic Radiation
              Light
              Sunlight
              Physical Sciences
              Physics
              Electromagnetic Radiation
              Solar Radiation
              Sunlight
              People and places
              Geographical locations
              Europe
              European Union
              Sweden
              People and Places
              Geographical Locations
              Europe
              Medicine and Health Sciences
              Gastroenterology and Hepatology
              Liver Diseases
              Cirrhosis
              Science Policy
              Open Science
              Open Data
              Earth Sciences
              Seasons
              Earth Sciences
              Seasons
              Summer
              Custom metadata
              Data on climate available at: https://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month/vov_pdf/. Data on alcohol consumption available at: www.can.se.

              Uncategorized

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