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      Coenzyme Q 10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease

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          Abstract

          Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an antioxidant in plasma membranes and lipoproteins. It is endogenously produced in all cells by a highly regulated pathway that involves a mitochondrial multiprotein complex. Defects in either the structural and/or regulatory components of CoQ complex or in non-CoQ biosynthetic mitochondrial proteins can result in a decrease in CoQ concentration and/or an increase in oxidative stress. Besides CoQ 10 deficiency syndrome and aging, there are chronic diseases in which lower levels of CoQ 10 are detected in tissues and organs providing the hypothesis that CoQ 10 supplementation could alleviate aging symptoms and/or retard the onset of these diseases. Here, we review the current knowledge of CoQ 10 biosynthesis and primary CoQ 10 deficiency syndrome, and have collected published results from clinical trials based on CoQ 10 supplementation. There is evidence that supplementation positively affects mitochondrial deficiency syndrome and the symptoms of aging based mainly on improvements in bioenergetics. Cardiovascular disease and inflammation are alleviated by the antioxidant effect of CoQ 10. There is a need for further studies and clinical trials involving a greater number of participants undergoing longer treatments in order to assess the benefits of CoQ 10 treatment in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, kidney diseases, and human fertility.

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          Most cited references129

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          Mitochondrial diseases.

          Mitochondrial diseases are a group of genetic disorders that are characterized by defects in oxidative phosphorylation and caused by mutations in genes in the nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that encode structural mitochondrial proteins or proteins involved in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial diseases are the most common group of inherited metabolic disorders and are among the most common forms of inherited neurological disorders. One of the challenges of mitochondrial diseases is the marked clinical variation seen in patients, which can delay diagnosis. However, advances in next-generation sequencing techniques have substantially improved diagnosis, particularly in children. Establishing a genetic diagnosis allows patients with mitochondrial diseases to have reproductive options, but this is more challenging for women with pathogenetic mtDNA mutations that are strictly maternally inherited. Recent advances in in vitro fertilization techniques, including mitochondrial donation, will offer a better reproductive choice for these women in the future. The treatment of patients with mitochondrial diseases remains a challenge, but guidelines are available to manage the complications of disease. Moreover, an increasing number of therapeutic options are being considered, and with the development of large cohorts of patients and biomarkers, several clinical trials are in progress.
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            Supercomplex assembly determines electron flux in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

            The textbook description of mitochondrial respiratory complexes (RCs) views them as free-moving entities linked by the mobile carriers coenzyme Q (CoQ) and cytochrome c (cyt c). This model (known as the fluid model) is challenged by the proposal that all RCs except complex II can associate in supercomplexes (SCs). The proposed SCs are the respirasome (complexes I, III, and IV), complexes I and III, and complexes III and IV. The role of SCs is unclear, and their existence is debated. By genetic modulation of interactions between complexes I and III and III and IV, we show that these associations define dedicated CoQ and cyt c pools and that SC assembly is dynamic and organizes electron flux to optimize the use of available substrates.
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              Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

              Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. About 2% of the population above the age of 60 is affected by the disease. The pathological hallmarks of the disease include the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies that are made of α-synuclein. Several theories have been suggested for the pathogenesis of PD, of which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in both sporadic and familial forms of the disease. Dysfunction of the mitochondria that is caused by bioenergetic defects, mutations in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA gene mutations linked to mitochondria, and changes in dynamics of the mitochondria such fusion or fission, changes in size and morphology, alterations in trafficking or transport, altered movement of mitochondria, impairment of transcription, and the presence of mutated proteins associated with mitochondria are implicated in PD. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the mechanisms that can cause mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. We bring to the forefront, new signaling pathways such as the retromer-trafficking pathway and its implication in the disease and also provide a brief overview of therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial defects in PD. Bioenergetic defects, mutations in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA gene mutations, alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, alterations in trafficking/transport and mitochondrial movement, abnormal size and morphology, impairment of transcription and the presence of mutated proteins associated with mitochondria are implicated in PD. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in PD and bring to the forefront new signaling pathways that may be involved in PD. We also provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial defects in PD. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                05 February 2018
                2018
                : 9
                : 44
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo and CIBERER, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Universidad Pablo de Olavide-CSIC-JA , Sevilla, Spain
                [2] 2Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health , Baltimore, MD, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Paolo Bernardi, Università degli Studi di Padova, Italy

                Reviewed by: Amadou K. S. Camara, Medical College of Wisconsin, United States; Uwe Schlattner, Université Grenoble Alpes, France

                *Correspondence: Plácido Navas pnavas@ 123456upo.es

                This article was submitted to Mitochondrial Research, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2018.00044
                5807419
                29459830
                65c13b28-319a-44fa-bad2-1d00a6014933
                Copyright © 2018 Hernández-Camacho, Bernier, López-Lluch and Navas.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 02 October 2017
                : 12 January 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 126, Pages: 11, Words: 8983
                Categories
                Physiology
                Review

                Anatomy & Physiology
                coenzyme q,aging,disease,mitochondria,antioxidant,coq deficiency
                Anatomy & Physiology
                coenzyme q, aging, disease, mitochondria, antioxidant, coq deficiency

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