Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Modeling the early steps of cytoplasmic trafficking in viral infection and gene delivery

Preprint

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Gene delivery of nucleic acid to the cell nucleus is a fundamental step in gene therapy. In this review of modeling drug and gene delivery, we focus on the particular stage of plasmid DNA or virus cytoplasmic trafficking. A challenging problem is to quantify the success of this limiting stage. We present some models and simulations of plasmid trafficking and of the limiting phase of DNA-polycation escape from an endosome and discuss virus cytoplasmic trafficking. The models can be used to assess the success of viral escape from endosomes, to quantify the early step of viral-cell infection, and to propose new simulation tools for designing new hybrid-viruses as synthetic vectors.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 60

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Receptor binding and membrane fusion in virus entry: the influenza hemagglutinin.

      Hemagglutinin (HA) is the receptor-binding and membrane fusion glycoprotein of influenza virus and the target for infectivity-neutralizing antibodies. The structures of three conformations of the ectodomain of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza virus HA have been determined by X-ray crystallography: the single-chain precursor, HA0; the metastable neutral-pH conformation found on virus, and the fusion pH-induced conformation. These structures provide a framework for designing and interpreting the results of experiments on the activity of HA in receptor binding, the generation of emerging and reemerging epidemics, and membrane fusion during viral entry. Structures of HA in complex with sialic acid receptor analogs, together with binding experiments, provide details of these low-affinity interactions in terms of the sialic acid substituents recognized and the HA residues involved in recognition. Neutralizing antibody-binding sites surround the receptor-binding pocket on the membrane-distal surface of HA, and the structures of the complexes between neutralizing monoclonal Fabs and HA indicate possible neutralization mechanisms. Cleavage of the biosynthetic precursor HA0 at a prominent loop in its structure primes HA for subsequent activation of membrane fusion at endosomal pH (Figure 1). Priming involves insertion of the fusion peptide into a charged pocket in the precursor; activation requires its extrusion towards the fusion target membrane, as the N terminus of a newly formed trimeric coiled coil, and repositioning of the C-terminal membrane anchor near the fusion peptide at the same end of a rod-shaped molecule. Comparison of this new HA conformation, which has been formed for membrane fusion, with the structures determined for other virus fusion glycoproteins suggests that these molecules are all in the fusion-activated conformation and that the juxtaposition of the membrane anchor and fusion peptide, a recurring feature, is involved in the fusion mechanism. Extension of these comparisons to the soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein complex of vesicle fusion allows a similar conclusion.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Molecular mechanism of the nuclear protein import cycle.

        The nuclear import of proteins through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) illustrates how a complex biological function can be generated by a spatially and temporally organized cycle of interactions between cargoes, carriers and the Ran GTPase. Recent work has given considerable insight into this process, especially about how interactions are coordinated and the basis for the molecular recognition that underlies the process. Although considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the molecular interactions in the soluble phase that drive the nuclear protein import cycle, understanding the precise mechanism of translocation through NPCs remains a major challenge.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection.

          Ebola virus (EboV) causes rapidly fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and there is currently no effective treatment. We found that the infection of African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells by vesicular stomatitis viruses bearing the EboV glycoprotein (GP) requires the activity of endosomal cysteine proteases. Using selective protease inhibitors and protease-deficient cell lines, we identified an essential role for cathepsin B (CatB) and an accessory role for cathepsin L (CatL) in EboV GP-dependent entry. Biochemical studies demonstrate that CatB and CatL mediate entry by carrying out proteolysis of the EboV GP subunit GP1 and support a multistep mechanism that explains the relative contributions of these enzymes to infection. CatB and CatB/CatL inhibitors diminish the multiplication of infectious EboV-Zaire in cultured cells and may merit investigation as anti-EboV drugs.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Journal
            07 September 2011
            1109.1495

            http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

            Custom metadata
            92B05, 92-08, 92C37, 92C45, 35Q84
            31 pages, 11 figures. To appear on SIAM
            q-bio.SC q-bio.BM

            Comments

            Comment on this article