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      Exploring Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients: Persistent and Superimposed Inflammation

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          Abstract

          Background: Inflammation is frequently elevated, and seems to be episodic in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Whether, its episodic character is due to the temporal variability, in periods free of clinical events, of the inflammatory indices or due, to the acute phase response induced by common inflammatory stimuli, has not been investigated yet in a longitudinal study. This study explores inflammation forms, characteristics and causes which are probably related to the high cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in HD patients. Methods: In 37 HD patients, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were weekly measured for 16 consecutive weeks. Inflammatory clinical events, in the week before every measurement, were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-one of 533 patient-weeks were positive for a clinical event. Mean ± SD (range) hs-CRP was 7.01 ± 16.06 (0.2–169) mg/l for all the weeks of the study, 38.25 ± 39.35 (2.1–169) mg/l for the weeks with clinical events and 3.70 ± 3.86 (0.2–26.1) mg/l for the weeks free of events. Variations for SAA and IL-6 were similar. ‘Clinical events’ strongly influenced acute-phase proteins and IL-6 levels. The effect of the factor ‘time’ (as assessed by inflammatory indices variation in weekly repeated measurements) was significant for all the 3 indices measured, independently of the factor ‘clinical events’. Conclusions: In periods free of clinical events, microinflammation characterizes HD patients and fluctuates in time. Inflammation due to common clinical events is added, periodically, to this microinflammation. The high level persistent microinflammation as well as the superimposed – due to clinical events – inflammation could be related to the CVD in these patients.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Familial and genetic determinants of systemic markers of inflammation: the NHLBI family heart study.

          Inflammation is thought to play a central role in the etiology and outcome of atherosclerosis. Animal studies as well as in vitro and in vivo human studies suggest that host factors modulate the magnitude and extent of inflammatory responses. We investigated familial aggregation of three systemic markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and albumin) in a large, cross-sectional study conducted in four US communities. We found evidence of substantial heritability (35-40%) for CRP levels as well as for WBC and albumin levels. Negligible spouse correlations suggested little influence of shared household environment on these traits. The combination of sociodemographic factors (age, center, education), behavioral and lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy), obesity and fat patterning, and prevalent diabetes explained 13-30% the interindividual variability of these traits. There was no evidence that these inflammation phenotypes were linked to a microsatellite marker in the interleukin-1 gene cluster on chromosome 2q, a region that includes several candidate genes for chronic inflammatory diseases. Our findings suggest that CRP levels, albumin levels, and WBC are determined at least partially by genetic factors. Further efforts to identify gene loci affecting these traits are warranted.
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            C-reactive protein upregulates angiotensin type 1 receptors in vascular smooth muscle.

            Accumulating evidence suggests that C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to predicting vascular disease, may actively facilitate lesion formation by inciting endothelial cell activation. Given the central importance of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1-R) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we examined the effects of CRP on AT1-R expression and kinetics in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. In addition, the effects of CRP on VSM migration, proliferation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evaluated in the presence and absence of the angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan. Lastly, the effects of CRP (and losartan) on neointimal formation were examined in vivo in a rat carotid angioplasty model. The effects of human recombinant CRP (0 to 100 microg/mL) on AT1-R transcript, mRNA stability, and protein expression were studied in cultured human VSM cells. AT1-R binding was assessed with 125I-labeled angiotensin II (Ang II). VSM migration was assessed with wound cell migration assays, whereas VSM proliferation was determined with [3H]-incorporation and cell number. The effects of CRP (and losartan) on Ang II-induced ROS production were evaluated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. Lastly, the effects of CRP (and losartan) on neointimal formation, VSM cell migration, proliferation, and matrix formation were studied in vivo in a rat carotid artery balloon injury model. CRP markedly upregulated AT1-R mRNA and protein expression and increased AT1-R number on VSM cells. CRP promoted VSM migration and proliferation in vitro and increased ROS production. Furthermore, CRP potentiated the effects of Ang II on these processes. In the rat carotid artery angioplasty model, exposure to CRP resulted in an increase in cell migration and proliferation, collagen and elastin content, and AT1-R expression, as well as an increase in neointimal formation; these effects were attenuated by losartan. CRP, at concentrations known to predict cardiovascular events, upregulates AT1-R-mediated atherosclerotic events in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and in vivo. These data lend credence to the notion that CRP functions as a proatherosclerotic factor as well as a powerful risk marker.
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              A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2004
                July 2004
                03 May 2004
                : 27
                : 2
                : 63-70
                Affiliations
                aRenal Unit, Alexandra General Hospital, bDepartment of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, cRenal Unit, Dragini Clinic, and dDepartment of Medical Biopathology, Eginition Hospital, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
                Article
                75809 Kidney Blood Press Res 2004;27:63–70
                10.1159/000075809
                14691348
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 27, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/75809
                Categories
                Original Paper

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