Blog
About

19
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Synapsin IIb as a functional marker of submissive behavior

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Dominance and submissiveness are important functional elements of the social hierarchy. By employing selective breeding based on a social interaction test, we developed mice with strong and stable, inheritable features of dominance and submissiveness. In order to identify candidate genes responsible for dominant and submissive behavior, we applied transcriptomic and proteomic studies supported by molecular, behavioral and pharmacological approaches. We clearly show here that the expression of Synapsin II isoform b (Syn IIb) is constitutively upregulated in the hippocampus and striatum of submissive mice in comparison to their dominant and wild type counterparts. Moreover, the reduction of submissive behavior achieved after mating and delivery was accompanied by a marked reduction of Syn IIb expression. Since submissiveness has been shown to be associated with depressive-like behavior, we applied acute SSRI (Paroxetine) treatment to reduce submissiveness in studied mice. We found that reduction of submissive behavior evoked by Paroxetine was paired with significantly decreased Syn IIb expression. In conclusion, our findings indicate that submissiveness, known to be an important element of depressive-like behavioral abnormalities, is strongly linked with changes in Syn IIb expression.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 50

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Database searching and accounting of multiplexed precursor and product ion spectra from the data independent analysis of simple and complex peptide mixtures.

          A novel database search algorithm is presented for the qualitative identification of proteins over a wide dynamic range, both in simple and complex biological samples. The algorithm has been designed for the analysis of data originating from data independent acquisitions, whereby multiple precursor ions are fragmented simultaneously. Measurements used by the algorithm include retention time, ion intensities, charge state, and accurate masses on both precursor and product ions from LC-MS data. The search algorithm uses an iterative process whereby each iteration incrementally increases the selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity of the overall strategy. Increased specificity is obtained by utilizing a subset database search approach, whereby for each subsequent stage of the search, only those peptides from securely identified proteins are queried. Tentative peptide and protein identifications are ranked and scored by their relative correlation to a number of models of known and empirically derived physicochemical attributes of proteins and peptides. In addition, the algorithm utilizes decoy database techniques for automatically determining the false positive identification rates. The search algorithm has been tested by comparing the search results from a four-protein mixture, the same four-protein mixture spiked into a complex biological background, and a variety of other "system" type protein digest mixtures. The method was validated independently by data dependent methods, while concurrently relying on replication and selectivity. Comparisons were also performed with other commercially and publicly available peptide fragmentation search algorithms. The presented results demonstrate the ability to correctly identify peptides and proteins from data independent acquisition strategies with high sensitivity and specificity. They also illustrate a more comprehensive analysis of the samples studied; providing approximately 20% more protein identifications, compared to a more conventional data directed approach using the same identification criteria, with a concurrent increase in both sequence coverage and the number of modified peptides.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The synapsins: key actors of synapse function and plasticity.

            The synapsins are a family of neuronal phosphoproteins evolutionarily conserved in invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. Their best-characterised function is to modulate neurotransmitter release at the pre-synaptic terminal, by reversibly tethering synaptic vesicles (SVs) to the actin cytoskeleton. However, many recent data have suggested novel functions for synapsins in other aspects of the pre-synaptic physiology, such as SV docking, fusion and recycling. Synapsin activity is tightly regulated by several protein kinases and phosphatases, which modulate the association of synapsins to SVs as well as their interaction with actin filaments and other synaptic proteins. In this context, synapsins act as a link between extracellular stimuli and the intracellular signalling events activated upon neuronal stimulation. Genetic manipulation of synapsins in various in vivo models has revealed that, although not essential for the basic development and functioning of neuronal networks, these proteins are extremely important in the fine-tuning of neuronal plasticity, as shown by the epileptic phenotype and behavioural abnormalities characterising mouse lines lacking one or more synapsin isoforms. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about how the various members of the synapsin family are involved in the modulation of the pre-synaptic physiology. We give a comprehensive description of the molecular basis of synapsin function, as well as an overview of the more recent evidence linking mutations in the synapsin proteins to the onset of severe central nervous system diseases such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Animal models of social stress: effects on behavior and brain neurochemical systems.

              Social interactions serve as an evolutionarily important source of stress, and one that is virtually ubiquitous among mammalian species. Animal models of social stress are varied, ranging from a focus on acute, intermittent, or chronic exposure involving agonistic behavior, to social isolation. The relative stressfulness of these experiences may depend on the species, sex, and age of the subjects, and subject sex also appears to influence the value of hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenal (HPA) axis activity as a general criterion for stress response: higher glucocorticoid levels are typically found in dominant females in some species. Social stress models often produce victorious and defeated, or dominant and subordinate, animals that may be compared to each other or to controls, but the appropriateness of specific types of comparisons and the interpretations of their differences may vary for the different models. Social stress strongly impacts behavior, generally reducing aggression and enhancing defensiveness, both inside and outside the stress situation. Social and sexual behaviors may be reduced in subordinate animals, as is activity and responsivity to normally rewarding events. However, some components of these changes may be dependent on the presence of a dominant, rather than representing a longer-term and general alteration in behavior. Social stress effects on brain neurotransmitter systems have been most extensively investigated, and most often found in serotonin and noradrenergic systems, with changes also reported for other monoamine and for peptidergic systems. Morphological changes and alterations of neogenesis and of cell survival particularly involving the hippocampus and dentate gyrus have been reported with severe social stress, as have longer-term changes in HPA axis functioning. These findings indicate that social stress models can provide high magnitude and appropriate stressors for research, but additionally suggest a need for caution in interpretation of the findings of these models and care in analysis of their underlying mechanisms.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                22 May 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Biology. Ariel University , Ariel. Israel
                [2 ]Faculty of Life Sciences. Bar-Ilan University , Ramat Gan. Israel
                [3 ]de Botton Institute for Protein Profiling, The Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine. Weizmann Institute of Science , Rehovot. Israel
                [4 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Tel-Aviv University , Tel-Aviv. Israel
                [5 ]Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University , Tel-Aviv. Israel
                Author notes
                Article
                srep10287
                10.1038/srep10287
                4441117
                25998951
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Categories
                Article

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article