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      Respiratory Manifestations of the Activated Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Delta Syndrome

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          Abstract

          The activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS), also known as p110δ-activating mutation causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI), is a combined immunodeficiency syndrome caused by gain-of-function mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) genes PIK3CD (encoding p110δ: APDS1 or PASLI-CD) and PIK3R1 (encoding p85α: APDS2 or PASLI-R1). While the disease is clinically heterogeneous, respiratory symptoms and complications are near universal and often severe. Infections of the ears, sinuses, and upper and lower respiratory tracts are the earliest and most frequent manifestation of APDS, secondary to both respiratory viruses and to bacterial pathogens typical of defective B cell function. End organ damage in the form of small airways disease and bronchiectasis frequently complicates APDS, but despite documented T cell defects, opportunistic infections have rarely been observed. Antimicrobial (principally antibiotic) prophylaxis and/or immunoglobulin replacement have been widely used to reduce the frequency and severity of respiratory infection in APDS, but outcome data to confirm the efficacy of these interventions are limited. Despite these measures, APDS patients are often afflicted by benign lymphoproliferative disease, which may present in the respiratory system as tonsillar/adenoidal enlargement, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, or mucosal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, potentially causing airways obstruction and compounding the infection phenotype. Treatment with rapamycin and PI3Kδ inhibitors has been reported to be of benefit in benign lymphoproliferation, but hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ideally undertaken before permanent airway damage is established) remains the only curative treatment for APDS.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Dominant-activating germline mutations in the gene encoding the PI(3)K catalytic subunit p110δ result in T cell senescence and human immunodeficiency.

          The p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) is selectively expressed in leukocytes and is critical for lymphocyte biology. Here we report fourteen patients from seven families who were heterozygous for three different germline, gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD (which encodes p110δ). These patients presented with sinopulmonary infections, lymphadenopathy, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and viremia due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Strikingly, they had a substantial deficiency in naive T cells but an over-representation of senescent effector T cells. In vitro, T cells from patients exhibited increased phosphorylation of the kinase Akt and hyperactivation of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR, enhanced glucose uptake and terminal effector differentiation. Notably, treatment with rapamycin to inhibit mTOR activity in vivo partially restored the abundance of naive T cells, largely 'rescued' the in vitro T cell defects and improved the clinical course.
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            Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ gene mutation predisposes to respiratory infection and airway damage.

            Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to infections. Here, we describe activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation in which lysine replaced glutamic acid at residue 1021 (E1021K) in the p110δ protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased immunoglobulin M, and reduced immunoglobulin G2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110δ. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110δ inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, which suggested a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS.
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              Clinical spectrum and features of activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome: A large patient cohort study

              Background Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) is a recently described combined immunodeficiency resulting from gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ). Objective We sought to review the clinical, immunologic, histopathologic, and radiologic features of APDS in a large genetically defined international cohort. Methods We applied a clinical questionnaire and performed review of medical notes, radiology, histopathology, and laboratory investigations of 53 patients with APDS. Results Recurrent sinopulmonary infections (98%) and nonneoplastic lymphoproliferation (75%) were common, often from childhood. Other significant complications included herpesvirus infections (49%), autoinflammatory disease (34%), and lymphoma (13%). Unexpectedly, neurodevelopmental delay occurred in 19% of the cohort, suggesting a role for PI3Kδ in the central nervous system; consistent with this, PI3Kδ is broadly expressed in the developing murine central nervous system. Thoracic imaging revealed high rates of mosaic attenuation (90%) and bronchiectasis (60%). Increased IgM levels (78%), IgG deficiency (43%), and CD4 lymphopenia (84%) were significant immunologic features. No immunologic marker reliably predicted clinical severity, which ranged from asymptomatic to death in early childhood. The majority of patients received immunoglobulin replacement and antibiotic prophylaxis, and 5 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Five patients died from complications of APDS. Conclusion APDS is a combined immunodeficiency with multiple clinical manifestations, many with incomplete penetrance and others with variable expressivity. The severity of complications in some patients supports consideration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe childhood disease. Clinical trials of selective PI3Kδ inhibitors offer new prospects for APDS treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield , Sheffield, United Kingdom
                2Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge , Cambridge, United Kingdom
                3Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, Babraham Institute , Cambridge, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Stuart G. Tangye, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Australia

                Reviewed by: Marina Cavazzana, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, France; Kenneth Neil Olivier, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NIH), United States

                *Correspondence: Alison M. Condliffe, a.m.condliffe@ 123456sheffield.ac.uk

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Primary Immunodeficiencies, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Contributors
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/502087
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                05 March 2018
                2018
                : 9
                5844940 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00338
                Copyright © 2018 Condliffe and Chandra.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 50, Pages: 8, Words: 6105
                Funding
                Funded by: Medical Research Council 10.13039/501100000265
                Award ID: MR/M012328
                Funded by: British Lung Foundation 10.13039/501100000351
                Award ID: PRG16-13
                Funded by: Wellcome Trust 10.13039/100004440
                Award ID: 103413/Z/13/Z
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

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