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      Impact of different emulsifiers on biocompatibility and inflammatory potential of Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8) emulsions for new intravenous drug delivery systems

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          Abstract

          Background

          Emulsions on the basis of Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8), a semifluorinated alkane (SFA), have shown to dissolve and transport highly lipophilic compounds. It is unknown how F6H8-containing emulsions (F6H8-cEM) interact with compartment blood, the reticuloendothelial system (RES), or influence injured organs in vivo. The current study was conducted to investigate the in vitro biocompatibility of F6H8-cEM and their drug delivery properties. Afterward, an in vivo study was performed as a proof-of-concept study in a rat model of acute kidney injury (AKI), which focused on the potential influence of F6H8-cEM on inflammation in an injured organ.

          Methods

          Two different F6H8-cEM were stabilized by the emulsifying agents Poloxamer 188 (Pluronic ® F68) or lecithin (S75). The two resulting emulsions F6H8-Pluronic or F6H8-lecithin were tested in vitro for the potential modulation of acute inflammation via whole blood assay, FACS, and ELISA. Antioxidant capacity and drug delivery properties were measured with an oxidation assay. Secondly, AKI was induced in the rats, which were treated with the F6H8-lecithin emulsion. Renal function and inflammation were assessed.

          Results

          Both F6H8-cEM were phagocytized by monocytes and both dose-dependently affected apoptosis (Annexin V binding) in monocytes. TNF-α expression increased dose-dependency for F6H8-Pluronic emulsion but not for F6H8-lecithin in a whole blood assay. Both F6H8-cEM were able to carry α-tocopherol as a model drug. Animals with AKI treated with the F6H8-lecithin emulsion showed a significantly better renal function and less infiltration of inflammatory cells in renal tissue compared to the control, while inflammatory markers in renal tissue, except HO-1, were not affected by F6H8-lecithin.

          Conclusions

          Pluronic ® F68 does not seem suitable as a biocompatible surfactant for F6H8-cEM. The injured kidney was not negatively influenced by the F6H8-lecithin emulsion. Lecithin-stabilized F6H8-cEM could be tested for preclinical studies as a carrier system for lipophilic agents.

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          Most cited references 48

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          A novel assay for apoptosis. Flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on early apoptotic cells using fluorescein labelled Annexin V.

          In the early stages of apoptosis changes occur at the cell surface, which until now have remained difficult to recognize. One of these plasma membrane alterations is the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner side of the plasma membrane to the outer layer, by which PS becomes exposed at the external surface of the cell. Annexin V is a Ca2+ dependent phospholipid-binding protein with high affinity for PS. Hence this protein can be used as a sensitive probe for PS exposure upon the cell membrane. Translocation of PS to the external cell surface is not unique to apoptosis, but occurs also during cell necrosis. The difference between these two forms of cell death is that during the initial stages of apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact, while at the very moment that necrosis occurs the cell membrane looses its integrity and becomes leaky. Therefore the measurement of Annexin V binding to the cell surface as indicative for apoptosis has to be performed in conjunction with a dye exclusion test to establish integrity of the cell membrane. This paper describes the results of such an assay, as obtained in cultured HSB-2 cells, rendered apoptotic by irradiation and in human lymphocytes, following dexamethasone treatment. Untreated and treated cells were evaluated for apoptosis by light microscopy, by measuring the amount of hypo-diploid cells using of DNA flow cytometry (FCM) and by DNA electrophoresis to establish whether or not DNA fragmentation had occurred. Annexin V binding was assessed using bivariate FCM, and cell staining was evaluated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Annexin V (green fluorescence), simultaneously with dye exclusion of propidium iodide (PI) (negative for red fluorescence). The test described, discriminates intact cells (FITC-/PI-), apoptotic cells (FITC+/PI-) and necrotic cells (FITC+/PI+). In comparison with existing traditional tests the Annexin V assay is sensitive and easy to perform. The Annexin V assay offers the possibility of detecting early phases of apoptosis before the loss of cell membrane integrity and permits measurements of the kinetics of apoptotic death in relation to the cell cycle. More extensive FCM will allow discrimination between different cell subpopulations, that may or may not be involved in the apoptotic process.
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            Ischemic acute renal failure: an inflammatory disease?

            Inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiology of acute renal failure resulting from ischemia. In this review, we discuss the contribution of endothelial and epithelial cells and leukocytes to this inflammatory response. The roles of cytokines/chemokines in the injury and recovery phase are reviewed. The ability of the mouse kidney to be protected by prior exposure to ischemia or urinary tract obstruction is discussed as a potential model to emulate as we search for pharmacologic agents that will serve to protect the kidney against injury. Understanding the inflammatory response prevalent in ischemic kidney injury will facilitate identification of molecular targets for therapeutic intervention.
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              The phagocytes: neutrophils and monocytes.

              The production and deployment of phagocytes are central functions of the hematopoietic system. In the 1950s, radioisotopic studies demonstrated the high production rate and short lifespan of neutrophils and allowed researchers to follow the monocytes as they moved from the marrow through the blood to become tissue macrophages, histiocytes, and dendritic cells. Subsequently, the discovery of the colony-stimulating factors greatly improved understanding the regulation of phagocyte production. The discovery of the microbicidal myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system and the importance of NADPH oxidase to the generation of H2O2 also stimulated intense interest in phagocyte disorders. More recent research has focused on membrane receptors and the dynamics of the responses of phagocytes to external factors including immunoglobulins, complement proteins, cytokines, chemokines, integrins, and selectins. Phagocytes express toll-like receptors that aid in the clearance of a wide range of microbial pathogens and their products. Phagocytes are also important sources of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus participating in host defenses through a variety of mechanisms. Over the last 50 years, many genetic and molecular disorders of phagocytes have been identified, leading to improved diagnosis and treatment of conditions which predispose patients to the risk of recurrent fevers and infectious diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                27 June 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 2097-2110
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg , Mannheim, Germany
                [2 ] Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Paediatric Surgery, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, University of Wuerzburg , Wurzburg, Germany
                [3 ] Department of Internal Medicine V, University Hospital Mannheim, Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg , Mannheim, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Charalambos TsagogiorgasDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg , Mannheim, Germany, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68165Mannheim, GermanyTel +49 621 383 2415Fax +49 621 383 2122Email charalambos.tsagogiorgas@ 123456medma.uni-heidelberg.de
                Article
                195954
                10.2147/DDDT.S195954
                6602054
                © 2019 Tsagogiorgas et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 54, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Original Research

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