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      Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

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          Abstract

          Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects.

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          Most cited references71

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          Novel metals and metal complexes as platforms for cancer therapy.

          Metals are essential cellular components selected by nature to function in several indispensable biochemical processes for living organisms. Metals are endowed with unique characteristics that include redox activity, variable coordination modes, and reactivity towards organic substrates. Due to their reactivity, metals are tightly regulated under normal conditions and aberrant metal ion concentrations are associated with various pathological disorders, including cancer. For these reasons, coordination complexes, either as drugs or prodrugs, become very attractive probes as potential anticancer agents. The use of metals and their salts for medicinal purposes, from iatrochemistry to modern day, has been present throughout human history. The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II) (NH(3))(2)Cl(2)], was a defining moment which triggered the interest in platinum(II)- and other metal-containing complexes as potential novel anticancer drugs. Other interests in this field address concerns for uptake, toxicity, and resistance to metallodrugs. This review article highlights selected metals that have gained considerable interest in both the development and the treatment of cancer. For example, copper is enriched in various human cancer tissues and is a co-factor essential for tumor angiogenesis processes. However the use of copper-binding ligands to target tumor copper could provide a novel strategy for cancer selective treatment. The use of nonessential metals as probes to target molecular pathways as anticancer agents is also emphasized. Finally, based on the interface between molecular biology and bioinorganic chemistry the design of coordination complexes for cancer treatment is reviewed and design strategies and mechanisms of action are discussed.
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            Alterations of microRNAs and their targets are associated with acquired resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to cisplatin.

            Cancer cells that develop resistance to chemotherapeutic agents are a major clinical obstacle in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Acquired cancer chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon, involving various mechanisms and processes. Recent studies suggest that chemoresistance may be linked to drug-induced dysregulation of microRNA function. Furthermore, mounting evidence indicates the existence of similarities between drug-resistant and metastatic cancer cells in terms of resistance to apoptosis and enhanced invasiveness. We studied the role of miRNA alterations in the acquisition of cisplatin-resistant phenotype in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. We identified a total of 103 miRNAs that were overexpressed or underexpressed (46 upregulated and 57 downregulated) in MCF-7 cells resistant to cisplatin. These differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in the control of cell signaling, cell survival, DNA methylation and invasiveness. The most significantly dysregulated miRNAs were miR-146a, miR-10a, miR-221/222, miR-345, miR-200b and miR-200c. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-345 and miR-7 target the human multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. These results suggest that dysregulated miRNA expression may underlie the abnormal functioning of critical cellular processes associated with the cisplatin-resistant phenotype.
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              The role of cellular accumulation in determining sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy.

              The platinum (Pt) drugs cisplatin and carboplatin are heavily employed in chemotherapy regimens; however, similar to other classes of drugs, a number of intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms hamper their effectiveness. The method by which Pt drugs enter cells has traditionally been attributed to simple passive diffusion. However, recent evidence suggests a number of active uptake and efflux mechanisms are at play, and altered regulation of these transporters is responsible for the reduced accumulation of drug in resistant cells. This review suggests a model that helps reconcile the disparate literature by describing multiple pathways for Pt-containing drugs into and out of the cell.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers
                Cancers
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                2072-6694
                March 2011
                15 March 2011
                : 3
                : 1
                : 1351-1371
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany; E-Mail: anamflorea@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ] Weil Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Doha, Qatar
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: dib2015@ 123456qatar-med.cornell.edu .
                Article
                cancers-03-01351
                10.3390/cancers3011351
                3756417
                24212665
                65f74eee-d4ca-4ca5-b850-7d5d12a75bc1
                © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                History
                : 14 January 2011
                : 28 February 2011
                : 03 March 2011
                Categories
                Review

                cisplatin,cancer,intracellular mechanisms,ros intracellular calcium,multi drug resistance,ros,combinatorial therapy,toxicity,cell death,dna damage and repair,apoptosis

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