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      The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

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          Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein ( LBP) gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp) of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations ( p < 0.05) of two of the three SNPs with the resistance to A. hydrophila, but not with the resistance to S. agalactiae or growth performance. These results suggest that the LBP gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to the bacterial infections, and the responses to the two bacterial pathogens are different. The two SNPs associated with the resistance to A. hydrophila may be useful in the selection of tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

           K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins.

            Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a nonrepeating "core" oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen). Recent genomic data have facilitated study of LPS assembly in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens, and have established the importance of lateral gene transfer in generating structural diversity of O-antigens. Many enzymes of lipid A biosynthesis like LpxC have been validated as targets for development of new antibiotics. Key genes for lipid A biosynthesis have unexpectedly also been found in higher plants, indicating that eukaryotic lipid A-like molecules may exist. Most significant has been the identification of the plasma membrane protein TLR4 as the lipid A signaling receptor of animal cells. TLR4 belongs to a family of innate immunity receptors that possess a large extracellular domain of leucine-rich repeats, a single trans-membrane segment, and a smaller cytoplasmic signaling region that engages the adaptor protein MyD88. The expanding knowledge of TLR4 specificity and its downstream signaling pathways should provide new opportunities for blocking inflammation associated with infection.
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              A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics

              During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high degree of information provided by its large number of alleles per locus. Despite this, a new marker type, named SNP, for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, is now on the scene and has gained high popularity, even though it is only a bi-allelic type of marker. In this review, we will discuss the reasons for this apparent step backwards, and the pertinence of the use of SNPs in animal genetics, in comparison with other marker types.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Molecular Population Genetics & Breeding Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604, Singapore; E-Mails: snow03221@ (G.H.F.); liufeng@ (F.L.); xiajunh3@ (J.H.X.)
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of East China Sea & Oceanic Fishery Resources Exploitation and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture of China, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Shanghai 200090, China
                [3 ]School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 266061, China
                [4 ]Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore
                [5 ]School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: ; Tel.: +65-6872-7405; Fax: +65-6872-7007.
                Role: External Editor
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                01 December 2014
                December 2014
                : 15
                : 12
                : 22028-22041
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (


                Molecular biology

                association, gene, snp, pathogen, tilapia


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