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      Vasopressin and Diabetes mellitus

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          Abstract

          In diabetes mellitus (DM), the urine flow rate is increased, and the fluid turnover in the body is accelerated because of the glucose-induced osmotic diuresis. On the other hand, plasma vasopressin (VP) is elevated in both type 1 and type 2 DM. This elevation seems to be due to a resetting of the osmostat. A high VP level is beneficial in the short term because it limits to some extent the amount of water required for the excretion of a markedly enhanced load of osmoles (mainly glucose). However, in the long run, it may have adverse effects by favoring the developement of diabetic nephropathy. VP has been shown in normal rats to induce kidney hypertrophy, glomerular hyperfiltration, and an increase in urinary albumin excretion (features also occurring in association in the period preceding diabetic nephropathy). Moreover, VP has been shown to participate in the progression of renal failure in rats with five-sixths reduction in renal mass. In recent studies, we have shown (1) that creatinine clearance, albuminuria and renal mass increased much less during experimental DM in Brattleboro rats unable to secrete VP than in their VP-replete Long-Evans controls, and (2) that albuminuria was prevented during experimental DM in Wistar rats when a VP nonpeptidic, highly selective V2 receptor antagonist was administered chronically for 9 weeks. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that VP plays a crucial role in the onset and aggravation of the renal complications of DM. The mechanisms by which VP exerts these adverse V2-dependent effects are not yet elucidated. They are most likely indirect and may involve several intermediate steps comprising VP-induced changes in the composition of the tubular fluid in the loop of Henle (due to solute recycling in the renal medulla associated with improved concentrating activity of the kidney), inhibition of the tubuloglomerular feedback control of glomerular function, and alterations in glomerular hemodynamics by the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Vasopressin contributes to hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and renal hypertrophy in diabetes mellitus: study in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

          Diabetic nephropathy represents a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and the origin of this complication is poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP), which is elevated in type I and type II DM, has been shown to increase glomerular filtration rate in normal rats and to contribute to progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. The present study was thus designed to evaluate whether VP contributes to the renal disorders of DM. Renal function was compared in Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus (DI) lacking VP and in normal Long-Evans (LE) rats, with or without streptozotocin-induced DM. Blood and urine were collected after 2 and 4 weeks of DM, and creatinine clearance, urinary glucose and albumin excretion, and kidney weight were measured. Plasma glucose increased 3-fold in DM rats of both strains, but glucose excretion was approximately 40% lower in DI-DM than in LE-DM, suggesting less intense metabolic disorders. Creatinine clearance increased significantly in LE-DM (P < 0.01) but failed to increase in DI-DM. Urinary albumin excretion more than doubled in LE-DM but rose by only 34% in DI-DM rats (P < 0.05). Kidney hypertrophy was also less intense in DI-DM than in LE-DM (P < 0.001). These results suggest that VP plays a critical role in diabetic hyperfiltration and albuminuria induced by DM. This hormone thus seems to be an additional risk factor for diabetic nephropathy and, thus, a potential target for prevention and/or therapeutic intervention.
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            Cigarette smoking and progression of retinopathy and nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

            The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between cigarette smoking and progression of retinopathy and nephropathy, respectively, in a prospective multicentre study including 636 people with Type 1 diabetes: 81% of the original cohort of consecutively referred patients, aged 15 to 40 years and free of severe late diabetic complications. At baseline, all patients had participated in a 5-day in-patient group treatment and teaching programme for intensification of insulin therapy. Patients were examined at recruitment, and after 1, 2, 3 and 6 years including assessment of smoking status, blood pressure, metabolic control, and degree of nephropathy. Degree of retinopathy was assessed by ophthalmoscopy or fundus photography at baseline and after 6 years. Several logistic regression analyses were performed by describing the responses retinopathy and nephropathy, respectively, either as progression yes/no or as actual status at the 6-year follow-up and by using different measures for smoking. Adjustments for important covariables were made. While significant associations between smoking, and retinopathy and nephropathy respectively, were found, the relations were variable depending on the statistical model used. The results show that the real associations between smoking and retinopathy and nephropathy are complex and that more emphasis should be put on the complete description of the response variables and the statistical models used in clinical and epidemiological research.
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              Modulation of insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas by the neurohypophysial hormones and by desamino-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP)

              Marked stimulation of glucagon release and modest stimulation of insulin release were observed during in situ perfusion of the rat pancreas with AVP or OT. Glucagon release in response to AVP or OT (200 pg/ml) gradually increased over a 45 min perfusion period reaching maxima of 500% and 300% of the pre-stimulatory levels, respectively. Insulin release transiently increased by 100%. In each case release rates returned to control values immediately after withdrawal of the peptides. Total glucagon release was concentration dependent and linear from 20 pg to 20 ng AVP or OT/ml (r greater than .97). Pancreatic response to DDAVP perfused at 20 ng/ml was virtually indistinguishable from that induced by AVP at 200 pg/ml. This demonstration of a glucagonotrophic action of the neurohypophysial hormones in the in situ perfused rat pancreas confirms earlier studies using isolated islets and bolus IV injection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                22 January 2001
                : 87
                : 1
                : 8-18
                Affiliations
                aINSERM Unité 367, Institut du Fer-à-Moulin, Paris, et bINSERM Unité 481, Hôpital Beaujon, Clichy, France
                Article
                45879 Nephron 2001;87:8–18
                10.1159/000045879
                11174021
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 75, Pages: 11
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45879
                Categories
                Distinguished Scientists Lecture Series<br>Section Editors: Chan, J.C.M.; Krieg, R.J.; Scheinmann, J.I. (Richmond, Va.)

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