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      LOW COST 3D SCANNING USING OFF-THE-SHELF VIDEO GAMING PERIPHERALS

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          Abstract

          Digitization of specimens is becoming an ever more important part of palaeontology, both for archival and research purposes. The advent of mainstream hardware containing depth sensors and RGB cameras, used primarily for interacting with video games, in conjunction with an open platform used by developers, has led to an abundance of highly affordable technology with which to digitize specimens. Here, the Microsoft® Kinect™ is used to digitize specimens of varying sizes in order to demonstrate the potential applications of the technology to palaeontologists. The resulting digital models are compared with models produced using photogrammetry. Although the Kinect™ generally records morphology at a lower resolution, and thus captures less detail than photogrammetric techniques, it offers advantages in speed of data acquisition, and generation of a completed mesh in real time at the point of data collection. Whilst it is therefore limited in archival applications, the ease of use and low cost, driven by strong market competition, make this technology an enticing alternative for studies where rapid digitization of general morphology is desired.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Accurate, dense, and robust multiview stereopsis.

          This paper proposes a novel algorithm for multiview stereopsis that outputs a dense set of small rectangular patches covering the surfaces visible in the images. Stereopsis is implemented as a match, expand, and filter procedure, starting from a sparse set of matched keypoints, and repeatedly expanding these before using visibility constraints to filter away false matches. The keys to the performance of the proposed algorithm are effective techniques for enforcing local photometric consistency and global visibility constraints. Simple but effective methods are also proposed to turn the resulting patch model into a mesh which can be further refined by an algorithm that enforces both photometric consistency and regularization constraints. The proposed approach automatically detects and discards outliers and obstacles and does not require any initialization in the form of a visual hull, a bounding box, or valid depth ranges. We have tested our algorithm on various data sets including objects with fine surface details, deep concavities, and thin structures, outdoor scenes observed from a restricted set of viewpoints, and "crowded" scenes where moving obstacles appear in front of a static structure of interest. A quantitative evaluation on the Middlebury benchmark shows that the proposed method outperforms all others submitted so far for four out of the six data sets.
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            A Kinect-based system for physical rehabilitation: a pilot study for young adults with motor disabilities.

            This study assessed the possibility of rehabilitating two young adults with motor impairments using a Kinect-based system in a public school setting. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their motivation for physical rehabilitation, thus improving exercise performance during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.

              Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000-57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny. Positive allometry in bite performance during growth may have facilitated an ontogenetic change in feeding behaviour in T. rex, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                16465806
                JOURNAL OF PALEONTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
                GEAL, Museu da Lourinha (Portugal )
                1646-5806
                2013
                : 11
                : 1-9
                Affiliations
                [Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Structure & Motion Laboratory, Royal Veterinary College, London, UK and Department of Ecology Evolutionary Biology, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, USA ]
                Article
                © 2013 Falkingham

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

                CC BY 3.0

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                Research article

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