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      Towards Modelling Genetic Kidney Diseases with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

      a ,   a , b , a
      S. Karger AG
      Embryo, Kidney disease, Gene, Glomerulus, Organoid, Tubule

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          Background: Kidney disease causes major suffering and premature mortality worldwide. With no cure for kidney failure currently available, and with limited options for treatment, there is an urgent need to develop effective pharmaceutical interventions to slow or prevent kidney disease progression. Summary: In this review, we consider the feasibility of using human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney tissues, or organoids, to model genetic kidney disease. Notable successes have been made in modelling genetic tubular diseases (e.g., cystinosis), polycystic kidney disease, and medullary cystic kidney disease. Organoid models have also been used to test novel therapies that ameliorate aberrant cell biology. Some progress has been made in modelling congenital glomerular disease, even though glomeruli within organoids are developmentally immature. Less progress has been made in modelling structural kidney malformations, perhaps because sufficiently mature metanephric mesenchyme-derived nephrons, ureteric bud-derived branching collecting ducts, and a prominent stromal cell population are not generated together within a single protocol. Key Messages: We predict that the field will advance significantly if organoids can be generated with a full complement of cell lineages and with kidney components displaying key physiological functions, such as glomerular filtration. The future economic upscaling of reproducible organoid generation will facilitate more widespread research applications, including the potential therapeutic application of these stem cell-based technologies.

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          Most cited references62

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          Kidney organoids from human iPS cells contain multiple lineages and model human nephrogenesis.

          The human kidney contains up to 2 million epithelial nephrons responsible for blood filtration. Regenerating the kidney requires the induction of the more than 20 distinct cell types required for excretion and the regulation of pH, and electrolyte and fluid balance. We have previously described the simultaneous induction of progenitors for both collecting duct and nephrons via the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Paradoxically, although both are of intermediate mesoderm in origin, collecting duct and nephrons have distinct temporospatial origins. Here we identify the developmental mechanism regulating the preferential induction of collecting duct versus kidney mesenchyme progenitors. Using this knowledge, we have generated kidney organoids that contain nephrons associated with a collecting duct network surrounded by renal interstitium and endothelial cells. Within these organoids, individual nephrons segment into distal and proximal tubules, early loops of Henle, and glomeruli containing podocytes elaborating foot processes and undergoing vascularization. When transcription profiles of kidney organoids were compared to human fetal tissues, they showed highest congruence with first trimester human kidney. Furthermore, the proximal tubules endocytose dextran and differentially apoptose in response to cisplatin, a nephrotoxicant. Such kidney organoids represent powerful models of the human organ for future applications, including nephrotoxicity screening, disease modelling and as a source of cells for therapy.
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            Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review.

            End-stage kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of the disease and worldwide use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are expected to rise sharply in the next decade. We aimed to quantify estimates of this burden.
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              Redefining the in vivo origin of metanephric nephron progenitors enables generation of complex kidney structures from pluripotent stem cells.

              Recapitulating three-dimensional (3D) structures of complex organs, such as the kidney, from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a major challenge. Here, we define the developmental origins of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM), which generates most kidney components. Unexpectedly, we find that posteriorly located T(+) MM precursors are developmentally distinct from Osr1(+) ureteric bud progenitors during the postgastrulation stage, and we identify phasic Wnt stimulation and stage-specific growth factor addition as molecular cues that promote their development into the MM. We then use this information to derive MM from PSCs. These progenitors reconstitute the 3D structures of the kidney in vitro, including glomeruli with podocytes and renal tubules with proximal and distal regions and clear lumina. Furthermore, the glomeruli are efficiently vascularized upon transplantation. Thus, by reevaluating the developmental origins of metanephric progenitors, we have provided key insights into kidney specification in vivo and taken important steps toward kidney organogenesis in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2021
                26 March 2021
                : 145
                : 3
                : 285-296
                [_a] aDivision of Cell Matrix Biology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
                [_b] bRoyal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom
                Author information
                514018 Nephron 2021;145:285–296
                © 2021 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY). Usage, derivative works and distribution are permitted provided that proper credit is given to the author and the original publisher.Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 08 August 2020
                : 19 December 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 12
                Experimental Nephrology and Genetics: Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Embryo,Tubule,Organoid,Glomerulus,Gene,Kidney disease
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                Embryo, Tubule, Organoid, Glomerulus, Gene, Kidney disease


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