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      Recent advances in bioprinting techniques: approaches, applications and future prospects

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          Abstract

          Bioprinting technology shows potential in tissue engineering for the fabrication of scaffolds, cells, tissues and organs reproducibly and with high accuracy. Bioprinting technologies are mainly divided into three categories, inkjet-based bioprinting, pressure-assisted bioprinting and laser-assisted bioprinting, based on their underlying printing principles. These various printing technologies have their advantages and limitations. Bioprinting utilizes biomaterials, cells or cell factors as a “bioink” to fabricate prospective tissue structures. Biomaterial parameters such as biocompatibility, cell viability and the cellular microenvironment strongly influence the printed product. Various printing technologies have been investigated, and great progress has been made in printing various types of tissue, including vasculature, heart, bone, cartilage, skin and liver. This review introduces basic principles and key aspects of some frequently used printing technologies. We focus on recent advances in three-dimensional printing applications, current challenges and future directions.

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          Most cited references 85

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          Printing and prototyping of tissues and scaffolds.

           Brian Derby (2012)
          New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. A more exciting prospect is the printing and patterning in three dimensions of all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix materials) to generate structures analogous to tissues; this has been termed bioprinting. Such techniques have opened new areas of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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            Vascularization in tissue engineering.

            Tissue engineering has been an active field of research for several decades now. However, the amount of clinical applications in the field of tissue engineering is still limited. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is its inability to provide sufficient blood supply in the initial phase after implantation. Insufficient vascularization can lead to improper cell integration or cell death in tissue-engineered constructs. This review will discuss the advantages and limitations of recent strategies aimed at enhancing the vascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. We will illustrate that combining the efforts of different research lines might be necessary to obtain optimal results in the field.
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              Cell encapsulation in biodegradable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications.

              Encapsulating cells in biodegradable hydrogels offers numerous attractive features for tissue engineering, including ease of handling, a highly hydrated tissue-like environment for cell and tissue growth, and the ability to form in vivo. Many properties important to the design of a hydrogel scaffold, such as swelling, mechanical properties, degradation, and diffusion, are closely linked to the crosslinked structure of the hydrogel, which is controlled through a variety of different processing conditions. Degradation may be tuned by incorporating hydrolytically or enzymatically labile segments into the hydrogel or by using natural biopolymers that are susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Because cells are present during the gelation process, the number of suitable chemistries and formulations are limited. In this review, we describe important considerations for designing biodegradable hydrogels for cell encapsulation and highlight recent advances in material design and their applications in tissue engineering.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jipengli2013@163.com
                mingjiaon@126.com
                +86 189-1852-6205 , fanxq@sh163.net
                +86 189-1852-6205 , fangzzfang@163.com
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1479-5876
                20 September 2016
                20 September 2016
                2016
                : 14
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011 People’s Republic of China
                Article
                1028
                10.1186/s12967-016-1028-0
                5028995
                27645770
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: National HighTechnology Research and Development Program(863 Program)
                Award ID: 2015AA020311
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: SJTU Medical Engineering Cross Fund
                Award ID: YG2014MS03
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Shanghai Science Committee Basic Research Leading Project
                Award ID: 13JC1403800
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Medicine

                artificial organs, 3d bioprinting, tissue engineering

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