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      A unique assemblage of epibenthic sessile suspension feeders with archaic features in the high-Antarctic

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          The Mesozoic marine revolution: evidence from snails, predators and grazers

          Tertiary and Recent marine gastropods include in their ranks a complement of mechanically sturdy forms unknown in earlier epochs. Open coiling, planispiral coiling, and umbilici detract from shell sturdiness, and were commoner among Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic gastropods than among younger forms. Strong external sculpture, narrow elongate apertures, and apertural dentition promote resistance to crushing predation and are primarily associated with post-Jurassic mesogastropods, neogastropods, and neritaceans. The ability to remodel the interior of the shell, developed primarily in gastropods with a non-nacreous shell structure, has contributed greatly to the acquisition of these antipredatory features.
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            A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record

            Data on numbers of marine families within 91 metazoan classes known from the Phanerozoic fossil record are analyzed. The distribution of the 2800 fossil families among the classes is very uneven, with most belonging to a small minority of classes. Similarly, the stratigraphic distribution of the classes is very uneven, with most first appearing early in the Paleozoic and with many of the smaller classes becoming extinct before the end of that era. However, despite this unevenness, aQ-mode factor analysis indicates that the structure of these data is rather simple. Only three factors are needed to account for more than 90% of the data. These factors are interpreted as reflecting the three great “evolutionary faunas” of the Phanerozoic marine record: a trilobite-dominated Cambrian fauna, a brachiopod-dominated later Paleozoic fauna, and a mollusc-dominated Mesozoic-Cenozoic, or “modern,” fauna. Lesser factors relate to slow taxonomic turnover within the major faunas through time and to unique aspects of particular taxa and times.
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              A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. III. Post-Paleozoic families and mass extinctions

              A three-phase kinetic model with time-specific perturbations is used to describe large-scale patterns in the diversification of Phanerozoic marine families. The basic model assumes that the Cambrian, Paleozoic, and Modern evolutionary faunas each diversified logistically as a consequence of early exponential growth and of later slowing of growth as the ecosystems became filled; it also assumes interaction among the evolutionary faunas such that expansion of the combined diversities of all three faunas above any single fauna's equilibrium caused that fauna's diversity to begin to decline. This basic model adequately describes the diversification of the evolutionary faunas through the Paleozoic Era as well as the asymmetrical rise and fall of background extinction rates through the entire Phanerozoic. Declines in diversity and changes in faunal dominance associated with mass extinctions can be accommodated in the model with short-term accelerations in extinction rates or declines in equilibria. Such accelerations, or perturbations, cause diversity to decline exponentially and then to rebound sigmoidally following release. The amount of decline is dependent on the magnitude and duration of the perturbation, the timing of the perturbation with respect to the diversification of the system, and the system's initial per-taxon rates of diversification and turnover. When applied to the three-phase model, such perturbations describe the changes in diversity and faunal dominance during and after major mass extinctions, the long-term rise in total diversity following the Late Permian and Norian mass extinctions, and the peculiar diversification and then decline of the remnants of the Paleozoic fauna during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. The good fit of this model to data on Phanerozoic familial diversity suggests that many of the large-scale patterns of diversification seen in the marine fossil record of animal families are simple consequences of nonlinear interrelationships among a small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the evolutionary faunas and are largely (but not completely) invariant through time.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
                Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
                Elsevier BV
                09670645
                April 2006
                April 2006
                : 53
                : 8-10
                : 1029-1052
                Article
                10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.10.021
                © 2006

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