2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Effects of Resvega on Inflammasome Activation in Conjunction with Dysfunctional Intracellular Clearance in Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease in which retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells play a crucial role in maintaining retinal homeostasis and photoreceptors’ functionality. During disease progression, there is increased inflammation with nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat, and Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, oxidative stress, and impaired autophagy in RPE cells. Previously, we have shown that the dietary supplement Resvega reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induces autophagy in RPE cells. Here, we investigated the ability of Resvega to prevent NLRP3 inflammasome activation with impaired protein clearance in human RPE cells. Cell viability was measured using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were utilized to determine the secretion of cytokines, NLRP3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Caspase-1 activity was measured with a fluorescent labeled inhibitor of caspase-1 (FLICA; FAM-YVAD-FMK) and detected microscopically. Resvega improved the cell membrane integrity, which was evident as reduced LDH leakage from cells. In addition, the caspase-1 activity and NLRP3 release were reduced, as was the secretion of two inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8, in IL-1α-primed ARPE-19 cells. According to our results, Resvega can potentially reduce NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation in RPE cells with impaired protein clearance.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 70

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A role for mitochondria in NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

          An inflammatory response initiated by the NLRP3 inflammasome is triggered by a variety of situations of host 'danger', including infection and metabolic dysregulation. Previous studies suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome activity is negatively regulated by autophagy and positively regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from an uncharacterized organelle. Here we show that mitophagy/autophagy blockade leads to the accumulation of damaged, ROS-generating mitochondria, and this in turn activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Resting NLRP3 localizes to endoplasmic reticulum structures, whereas on inflammasome activation both NLRP3 and its adaptor ASC redistribute to the perinuclear space where they co-localize with endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria organelle clusters. Notably, both ROS generation and inflammasome activation are suppressed when mitochondrial activity is dysregulated by inhibition of the voltage-dependent anion channel. This indicates that NLRP3 inflammasome senses mitochondrial dysfunction and may explain the frequent association of mitochondrial damage with inflammatory diseases.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Recent advances in the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its inhibitors

            The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that initiates an inflammatory form of cell death and triggers the release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Prion diseases, type 2 diabetes, and some infectious diseases. It has been found that a variety of stimuli including danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, such as silica and uric acid crystals) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) can activate NLRP3 inflammasome, but the specific regulatory mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain unclear. Understanding the mechanisms of NLRP3 activation will enable the development of its specific inhibitors to treat NLRP3-related diseases. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as inhibitors that specifically and directly target NLRP3.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Autophagy proteins regulate innate immune response by inhibiting NALP3 inflammasome-mediated mitochondrial DNA release

              Autophagy, a cellular process for organelle and protein turnover, regulates innate immune responses. We demonstrate that depletion of autophagic proteins microtubule associated protein-1 light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin 1 enhances caspase-1 activation and secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. Autophagic protein depletion promoted accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP in macrophages. Release of mtDNA into the cytosol depended on the NALP3 inflammasome and mitochondrial ROS. Cytosolic mtDNA contributed to IL-1β and IL-18 secretion in response to LPS and ATP. LC3B-deficient mice produced more caspase-1-dependent cytokines in two sepsis models and were susceptible to LPS-induced mortality. Our study suggests that autophagic proteins regulate NALP3-dependent inflammation by preserving mitochondrial integrity.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                07 January 2021
                January 2021
                : 10
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland; niina.piippo@ 123456uef.fi (N.P.); sofia.ranta-aho@ 123456uef.fi (S.R.-a.); yashavanthi.mysore@ 123456uef.fi (Y.M.)
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland; kai.kaarniranta@ 123456uef.fi
                [3 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: niina.bhattarai@ 123456uef.fi (N.B.); anu.kauppinen@ 123456uef.fi (A.K.); Tel.: +358-44-9830-424 (N.B.); +358-40-3553-216 (A.K.)
                Article
                antioxidants-10-00067
                10.3390/antiox10010067
                7825790
                33430331
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article