1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Welfare Assessment in Shelter Dogs by Using Physiological and Immunological Parameters

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Simple Summary

          In “no-kill policy” countries, many dogs live in shelters. Several social, environmental, and management challenges can put the welfare of shelter dogs at risk. More knowledge is still needed on how to assess shelter dog welfare. This study aimed to evaluate the state of welfare of a group of dogs entering a shelter using physiological and immunological parameters by exploring the value of some biological indicators obtained by non-invasive methods. Considering that early welfare assessment could improve the management of subjects more prone to developing distress, measurements were taken at the time of admission and four weeks after the dogs entered the shelter. A multivariate statistical approach was used to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between the variables investigated. A reduction in the values of the measured physiological and immune parameters over time suggested an improvement in the dogs’ welfare after four weeks of being in the shelter compared to the initial capture and admission time. Findings also highlighted that some of the parameters investigated, such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, and fecal cortisol and lysozyme could be used for the welfare assessment of dogs entering a shelter.

          Abstract

          This study aimed to evaluate the state of welfare of a group of dogs during the first month after entering the shelter by using different stress parameters. Blood and fecal samples were collected from a group of 71 dogs at the time of admission to the shelter. In 46 of these dogs, sampling was repeated after four weeks. Well-recognized welfare biomarkers, such as fecal cortisol and leukocytes, as well as some innovative parameters (β-endorphin and lysozyme) were determined. Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate their interactions and changes over time. Neutrophils ( p < 0.01), lysozyme ( p < 0.05), and fecal cortisol ( p < 0.05) decreased, while lymphocytes ( p < 0.05) increased after four weeks compared to the first days of being in the shelter, suggesting an improvement in the dogs’ welfare over time. A principal component analysis extracted three bipolar components (PCs), explaining 75% of the variance and indicating negative associations between neutrophil and lymphocyte (PC1), lysozyme and β-endorphin (PC2), cortisol and lysozyme (PC3). The associations between these variables within each PC also confirmed the intricate relationships between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system as well as the importance of a multiparametric approach in evaluating welfare.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 58

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Endocrinology of the stress response.

          The stress response is subserved by the stress system, which is located both in the central nervous system and the periphery. The principal effectors of the stress system include corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH); arginine vasopressin; the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, the glucocorticoids; and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. Appropriate responsiveness of the stress system to stressors is a crucial prerequisite for a sense of well-being, adequate performance of tasks, and positive social interactions. By contrast, inappropriate responsiveness of the stress system may impair growth and development and may account for a number of endocrine, metabolic, autoimmune, and psychiatric disorders. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors, and the timing of the stressful events, given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood, and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            The use of leukocyte profiles to measure stress in vertebrates: a review for ecologists

             A Davis,  D. Maney,  J. Maerz (2008)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

              Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animals (Basel)
                Animals (Basel)
                animals
                Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI
                MDPI
                2076-2615
                11 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 9
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle Marche “Togo Rosati”, via Salvemini 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy; cecilia983@ 123456tiscali.it (C.R.); l.moscati@ 123456izsum.it (L.M.)
                [2 ]Laboratory of Ethology and Animal Welfare (LEBA), Department of Veterinary Medicine, Perugia University, via San Costanzo 4, 06126 Perugia, Italy; laura.menchetti7@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]Tyrus Clinica Veterinaria, Via Bartocci 1G, 05100 Terni, Italy; riccardo.orlandi83@ 123456hotmail.it
                [4 ]Public Veterinary Services for Urban Hygiene and Prevention of Stray Dogs, USL Umbria 1, Municipal Rescue Dog Shelter, Strada per Brufa snc, Collestrada, 06148 Perugia, Italy; stefania.mancini@ 123456uslumbria1.it
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: silvana.diverio@ 123456unipg.it ; Tel.: +39-0755857639
                Article
                animals-09-00340
                10.3390/ani9060340
                6616394
                31212652
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article