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      Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century.

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          Abstract

          This paper documents a marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. This change reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States; no other rich country saw a similar turnaround. The midlife mortality reversal was confined to white non-Hispanics; black non-Hispanics and Hispanics at midlife, and those aged 65 and above in every racial and ethnic group, continued to see mortality rates fall. This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. Although all education groups saw increases in mortality from suicide and poisonings, and an overall increase in external cause mortality, those with less education saw the most marked increases. Rising midlife mortality rates of white non-Hispanics were paralleled by increases in midlife morbidity. Self-reported declines in health, mental health, and ability to conduct activities of daily living, and increases in chronic pain and inability to work, as well as clinically measured deteriorations in liver function, all point to growing distress in this population. We comment on potential economic causes and consequences of this deterioration.

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          Most cited references18

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          The Determinants of Mortality

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            A flood of opioids, a rising tide of deaths.

            Susan Okie (2010)
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              Opioid therapy for chronic pain.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
                1091-6490
                0027-8424
                Dec 8 2015
                : 112
                : 49
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and Department of Economics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 accase@princeton.edu Deaton@princeton.edu.
                Article
                1518393112
                10.1073/pnas.1518393112
                4679063
                26575631
                66765143-7340-4061-8313-3d563de7270a
                History

                morbidity,midlife mortality,US white non-Hispanics
                morbidity, midlife mortality, US white non-Hispanics

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