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      The Physiology of the World Record Holder for the Women's Marathon

      International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
      Multi-Science Publishing Co. Ltd.

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          Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.

          Regularly performed endurance exercise induces major adaptations in skeletal muscle. These include increases in the mitochondrial content and respiratory capacity of the muscle fibers. As a consequence of the increase in mitochondria, exercise of the same intensity results in a disturbance in homeostasis that is smaller in trained than in untrained muscles. The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity. These adaptations play an important role in the large increase in the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise that occurs in response to endurance exercise training.
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            The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training

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              Relationship between distance running mechanics, running economy, and performance.

              The relationships between biocmechanical aspects of distance running, running economy (VO2 submax), and performance were investigated. A variety of biomechanical measures for 31 subjects running at 3.6 m/s was obtained, including three-dimensional angular and translational kinematics, ground reaction forces and center of pressure patterns, mechanical power, and anthropometric measures. Physiological measures obtained included maximal and submaximal O2 consumption, muscle fiber composition, and measures of the ability to store and return elastic energy during knee bends. A subset of 16 runners was also evaluated in relation to performance in a 10-km run. Biomechanical variables were identified which showed significant differences or consistent trends between groups separated on the basis of VO2 submax, establishing the importance of biomechanical influences on running economy. It appears that no single variable or small subset of variables can explain differences in economy between individuals but rather that economy is related to a weighted sum of the influences of many variables.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
                International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
                Multi-Science Publishing Co. Ltd.
                1747-9541
                2048-397X
                November 07 2016
                November 07 2016
                : 1
                : 2
                : 101-116
                Article
                10.1260/174795406777641258
                66865f59-b85b-438a-b1ad-4543bbe9a669
                © 2016

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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