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      Acylated Ghrelin Secretion Is Acutely Suppressed by Oral Glucose Load or Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia Independently of Basal Growth Hormone Secretion in Humans

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          Abstract

          Background: Ghrelin has been reported to be the natural ligand of growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor, and it is known that exogenous ghrelin administration strongly stimulates GH release in humans . However, the effects of endogenous ghrelin on GH secretion and changes in ghrelin levels during dynamic changes in GH levels are not well understood. Methods: Therefore, we measured circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in patients with active acromegaly (AA, n = 9) and in age/sex/BMI-matched group A controls (n = 12), and during insulin tolerance testing (ITT) in patients with GH deficiency (GHD, n = 10) and in group B controls (n = 10). Plasma acylated ghrelin, serum GH, insulin and glucose levels were measured during each test. Results: Fasting plasma ghrelin levels correlated negatively with serum insulin levels in both group A and B controls (r = –0.665; p < 0.05) but not in patients with AA or GHD. During OGTTs, circulating ghrelin levels decreased significantly with a nadir at 30 min in both patients with AA (p < 0.05) and group A controls (p < 0.01). Also, ITTs were followed by a significant decrease in circulating ghrelin levels with a nadir at 30 min in patients with GHD (p < 0.05) and in group B controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the study show that at baseline acylated ghrelin levels do not differ with respect to the GH status (GH excess or GH deficiency) and, furthermore, the suppression of acylated ghrelin levels during OGTT or ITT is independent of the GH response to the tests.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Deletion of ghrelin impairs neither growth nor appetite.

          Pharmacological studies show that ghrelin stimulates growth hormone release, appetite, and fat deposition, but ghrelin's physiological role in energy homeostasis has not been established. Ghrelin was also proposed to regulate leptin and insulin release and to be important for the normal function of stomach, heart, kidney, lung, testis, and placenta. To help determine a definable physiological role for ghrelin, we generated ghrelin-null mice. In contrast to predictions made from the pharmacology of ghrelin, ghrelin-null mice are not anorexic dwarfs; their size, growth rate, food intake, body composition, reproduction, gross behavior, and tissue pathology are indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Fasting produces identical decreases in serum leptin and insulin in null and wild-type mice. Ghrelin-null mice display normal responses to starvation and diet-induced obesity. As in wild-type mice, the administration of exogenous ghrelin stimulates appetite in null mice. Our data show that ghrelin is not critically required for viability, fertility, growth, appetite, bone density, and fat deposition and not likely to be a direct regulator of leptin and insulin. Therefore, antagonists of ghrelin are unlikely to have broad utility as antiobesity agents.
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            Neurosteroid metabolism in the human brain.

            This review summarizes the current knowledge of the biosynthesis of neurosteroids in the human brain, the enzymes mediating these reactions, their localization and the putative effects of neurosteroids. Molecular biological and biochemical studies have now firmly established the presence of the steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450SCC), aromatase, 5alpha-reductase, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in human brain. The functions attributed to specific neurosteroids include modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), nicotinic, muscarinic, serotonin (5-HT3), kainate, glycine and sigma receptors, neuroprotection and induction of neurite outgrowth, dendritic spines and synaptogenesis. The first clinical investigations in humans produced evidence for an involvement of neuroactive steroids in conditions such as fatigue during pregnancy, premenstrual syndrome, post partum depression, catamenial epilepsy, depressive disorders and dementia disorders. Better knowledge of the biochemical pathways of neurosteroidogenesis and their actions on the brain seems to open new perspectives in the understanding of the physiology of the human brain as well as in the pharmacological treatment of its disturbances.
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              Role of gestational hormones in the induction of insulin resistance.

              Pregnancy is associated with insulin resistance. We studied insulin binding and postbinding function in isolated adipocytes from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. We also used a primary culture system for female virgin rat adipocytes to assess the effects of gestational hormones in vitro on insulin binding and postbinding function. Insulin binding to adipocytes was normal during pregnancy, but [14C]3-O-methylglucose transport was reduced. When hCG or estradiol was added to the culture medium, no change in maximum [14C]3-O-methylglucose transport was found; however, maximum insulin binding was increased with estradiol. Progesterone and cortisol both decreased maximum insulin binding and [14C]3-O-methylglucose transport. PRL and placental lactogen decreased maximum [14C]3-O-methylglucose transport, but did not change insulin binding. When these hormones were added concurrently no change in insulin binding was found, but maximum [14C]3-O-methylglucose transport was reduced. We conclude that the insulin resistance of pregnancy is associated with a postbinding defect in insulin action. Estradiol increased insulin receptor binding, but during pregnancy this effect may be offset by the reduction in insulin binding induced by progesterone and cortisol. The postbinding defect in insulin action during pregnancy is probably related to increasing amounts of progesterone, cortisol, PRL, and placental lactogen.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                April 2007
                16 November 2006
                : 67
                : 5
                : 211-219
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, bSeoul National University Hospital Clinical Research Institute, cInstitute for Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolism, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul, Korea
                Article
                97098 Horm Res 2007;67:211–219
                10.1159/000097098
                17114888
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 41, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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