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      Private genome analysis through homomorphic encryption

      , 1 , 2

      BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making

      BioMed Central

      4th iDASH Privacy Workshop

      1632015

      Homomorphic encryption, Genome-wide association studies, Hamming distance, Approximate Edit distance

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          Abstract

          Background

          The rapid development of genome sequencing technology allows researchers to access large genome datasets. However, outsourcing the data processing o the cloud poses high risks for personal privacy. The aim of this paper is to give a practical solution for this problem using homomorphic encryption. In our approach, all the computations can be performed in an untrusted cloud without requiring the decryption key or any interaction with the data owner, which preserves the privacy of genome data.

          Methods

          We present evaluation algorithms for secure computation of the minor allele frequencies and χ 2 statistic in a genome-wide association studies setting. We also describe how to privately compute the Hamming distance and approximate Edit distance between encrypted DNA sequences. Finally, we compare performance details of using two practical homomorphic encryption schemes - the BGV scheme by Gentry, Halevi and Smart and the YASHE scheme by Bos, Lauter, Loftus and Naehrig.

          Results

          The approach with the YASHE scheme analyzes data from 400 people within about 2 seconds and picks a variant associated with disease from 311 spots. For another task, using the BGV scheme, it took about 65 seconds to securely compute the approximate Edit distance for DNA sequences of size 5K and figure out the differences between them.

          Conclusions

          The performance numbers for BGV are better than YASHE when homomorphically evaluating deep circuits (like the Hamming distance algorithm or approximate Edit distance algorithm). On the other hand, it is more efficient to use the YASHE scheme for a low-degree computation, such as minor allele frequencies or χ 2 test statistic in a case-control study.

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          Most cited references 1

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          Private predictive analysis on encrypted medical data.

          Increasingly, confidential medical records are being stored in data centers hosted by hospitals or large companies. As sophisticated algorithms for predictive analysis on medical data continue to be developed, it is likely that, in the future, more and more computation will be done on private patient data. While encryption provides a tool for assuring the privacy of medical information, it limits the functionality for operating on such data. Conventional encryption methods used today provide only very restricted possibilities or none at all to operate on encrypted data without decrypting it first. Homomorphic encryption provides a tool for handling such computations on encrypted data, without decrypting the data, and without even needing the decryption key. In this paper, we discuss possible application scenarios for homomorphic encryption in order to ensure privacy of sensitive medical data. We describe how to privately conduct predictive analysis tasks on encrypted data using homomorphic encryption. As a proof of concept, we present a working implementation of a prediction service running in the cloud (hosted on Microsoft's Windows Azure), which takes as input private encrypted health data, and returns the probability for suffering cardiovascular disease in encrypted form. Since the cloud service uses homomorphic encryption, it makes this prediction while handling only encrypted data, learning nothing about the submitted confidential medical data.
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            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Conference
            BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
            BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
            BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
            BioMed Central
            1472-6947
            2015
            21 December 2015
            : 15
            : Suppl 5
            : S3
            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Mathematical Sciences, GwanAkRo 1, Seoul, Korea
            [2 ]Cryptography Research Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA
            Article
            1472-6947-15-S5-S3
            10.1186/1472-6947-15-S5-S3
            4699052
            26733152
            Copyright © 2015 Kim and Lauter.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            4th iDASH Privacy Workshop
            San Diego, CA, USA
            1632015
            Categories
            Proceedings

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