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      In vitro and in vivo accumulation of magnetic nanoporous silica nanoparticles on implant materials with different magnetic properties

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          In orthopedic surgery, implant-associated infections are still a major problem. For the improvement of the selective therapy in the infection area, magnetic nanoparticles as drug carriers are promising when used in combination with magnetizable implants and an externally applied magnetic field. These implants principally increase the strength of the magnetic field resulting in an enhanced accumulation of the drug loaded particles in the target area and therewith a reduction of the needed amount and the risk of undesirable side effects. In the present study magnetic nanoporous silica core–shell nanoparticles, modified with fluorophores (fluorescein isothiocyanate/FITC or rhodamine B isothiocyanate/RITC) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), were used in combination with metallic plates of different magnetic properties and with a magnetic field. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to investigate particle accumulation and retention and their biocompatibility.


          Spherical magnetic silica core–shell nanoparticles with reproducible superparamagnetic behavior and high porosity were synthesized. Based on in vitro proliferation and viability tests the modification with organic fluorophores and PEG led to highly biocompatible fluorescent particles, and good dispersibility. In a circular tube system martensitic steel 1.4112 showed superior accumulation and retention of the magnetic particles in comparison to ferritic steel 1.4521 and a Ti90Al6V4 control. In vivo tests in a mouse model where the nanoparticles were injected subcutaneously showed the good biocompatibility of the magnetic silica nanoparticles and their accumulation on the surface of a metallic plate, which had been implanted before, and in the surrounding tissue.


          With their superparamagnetic properties and their high porosity, multifunctional magnetic nanoporous silica nanoparticles are ideal candidates as drug carriers. In combination with their good biocompatibility in vitro, they have ideal properties for an implant directed magnetic drug targeting. Missing adverse clinical and histological effects proved the good biocompatibility in vivo. Accumulation and retention of the nanoparticles could be influenced by the magnetic properties of the implanted plates; a remanent martensitic steel plate significantly improved both values in vitro. Therefore, the use of magnetizable implant materials in combination with the magnetic nanoparticles has promising potential for the selective treatment of implant-associated infections.

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          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12951-018-0422-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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              Mesoporous silica nanoparticles: synthesis, biocompatibility and drug delivery.

              In the past decade, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted more and more attention for their potential biomedical applications. With their tailored mesoporous structure and high surface area, MSNs as drug delivery systems (DDSs) show significant advantages over traditional drug nanocarriers. In this review, we overview the recent progress in the synthesis of MSNs for drug delivery applications. First, we provide an overview of synthesis strategies for fabricating ordered MSNs and hollow/rattle-type MSNs. Then, the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and biotranslocation of MSNs are discussed in relation to their chemophysical properties including particle size, surface properties, shape, and structure. The review also highlights the significant achievements in drug delivery using mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their multifunctional counterparts as drug carriers. In particular, the biological barriers for nano-based targeted cancer therapy and MSN-based targeting strategies are discussed. We conclude with our personal perspectives on the directions in which future work in this field might be focused. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9529 9877, GRID grid.10423.34, NIFE-Lower Saxony Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Implant Research and Development, , Clinic for Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, ; Stadtfelddamm 34, 30625 Hannover, Germany
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2163 2777, GRID grid.9122.8, Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, , Leibniz University Hannover, ; Callinstraße 9, 30167 Hannover, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0126 6191, GRID grid.412970.9, Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, , University of Veterinary Medicine, Foundation, ; Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2163 2777, GRID grid.9122.8, Institute of Micro Production Technology, , Leibniz University Hannover, ; An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen, Germany
                J Nanobiotechnology
                J Nanobiotechnology
                Journal of Nanobiotechnology
                BioMed Central (London )
                27 November 2018
                27 November 2018
                : 16
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DE)
                Award ID: RE 3456/2-1
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                © The Author(s) 2018


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