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A second locality for the Namib darkling beetle Onymacris brainei (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera) and first report on its molecular phylogenetic placement

1 , 2 , 3

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Pensoft Publishers

Adesmiini, Namib Desert, Onymacris, Tenebrionidae

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      Abstract

      Abstract Onymacris brainei Penrith, 1984 – the most recent species of Onymacris to be described – is known only from its type locality in the Namib Desert, adjacent to the Cunene River in northern Namibia. No additional specimens are known to have been collected beyond the type series. Herein, we report on eight specimens discovered at a second site near the original locality. DNA from four beetles was used to determine the phylogenetic placement of O. brainei among congeners, based on sequence data from one nuclear (histone III) and two mitochondrial (cox1, cox2) genes. Maximum likelihood analysis identifies O. brainei as a member of the ‘white’ Onymacris clade, in which it forms a strongly supported subclade with O. bicolor and O. marginipennis. More broadly, its phylogenetic placement augments previous molecular results that revealed a sister taxon relationship between the ‘white’ Onymacris and a second genus, Physadesmia. The paraphyly of Onymacris with respect to Physadesmia highlights a need for nomenclatural change, but revision should await acquisition of genetic data for the few species outstanding in both genera.

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      Most cited references 16

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      Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0.

      The Clustal W and Clustal X multiple sequence alignment programs have been completely rewritten in C++. This will facilitate the further development of the alignment algorithms in the future and has allowed proper porting of the programs to the latest versions of Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The programs can be run on-line from the EBI web server: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tools/clustalw2. The source code and executables for Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers are available from the EBI ftp site ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/clustalw2/
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        RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models.

        RAxML-VI-HPC (randomized axelerated maximum likelihood for high performance computing) is a sequential and parallel program for inference of large phylogenies with maximum likelihood (ML). Low-level technical optimizations, a modification of the search algorithm, and the use of the GTR+CAT approximation as replacement for GTR+Gamma yield a program that is between 2.7 and 52 times faster than the previous version of RAxML. A large-scale performance comparison with GARLI, PHYML, IQPNNI and MrBayes on real data containing 1000 up to 6722 taxa shows that RAxML requires at least 5.6 times less main memory and yields better trees in similar times than the best competing program (GARLI) on datasets up to 2500 taxa. On datasets > or =4000 taxa it also runs 2-3 times faster than GARLI. RAxML has been parallelized with MPI to conduct parallel multiple bootstraps and inferences on distinct starting trees. The program has been used to compute ML trees on two of the largest alignments to date containing 25,057 (1463 bp) and 2182 (51,089 bp) taxa, respectively. icwww.epfl.ch/~stamatak
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          The problem with “the Paleoptera Problem:” sense and sensitivity

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
            [2 ] National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia
            [3 ] Department of Biological Sciences and Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Trip Lamb ( lamba@ 123456ecu.edu )

            Academic editor: A. Smith

            Journal
            Zookeys
            Zookeys
            ZooKeys
            ZooKeys
            Pensoft Publishers
            1313-2989
            1313-2970
            2017
            1 August 2017
            : 687
            : 63-72
            5672573
            10.3897/zookeys.687.13660
            Trip Lamb, Eugene Marais, Jason E. Bond

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Funding
            Funded by: National Geographic Society 100006363 http://doi.org/10.13039/100006363
            Categories
            Research Article

            Animal science & Zoology

            tenebrionidae, onymacris, namib desert, adesmiini

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