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      Regulation of phospholipid distribution in the lipid bilayer by flippases and scramblases

      review-article
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      Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Phospholipids, Lipid signalling

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          Abstract

          Cellular membranes function as permeability barriers that separate cells from the external environment or partition cells into distinct compartments. These membranes are lipid bilayers composed of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol, in which proteins are embedded. Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids freely move laterally, whereas transverse movement between lipid bilayers is limited. Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between membrane leaflets but change their location in biological processes, serving as signalling molecules or enzyme activators. Designated proteins — flippases and scramblases — mediate this lipid movement between the bilayers. Flippases mediate the confined localization of specific phospholipids (phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and phosphatidylethanolamine) to the cytoplasmic leaflet. Scramblases randomly scramble phospholipids between leaflets and facilitate the exposure of PtdSer on the cell surface, which serves as an important signalling molecule and as an ‘eat me’ signal for phagocytes. Defects in flippases and scramblases cause various human diseases. We herein review the recent research on the structure of flippases and scramblases and their physiological roles. Although still poorly understood, we address the mechanisms by which they translocate phospholipids between lipid bilayers and how defects cause human diseases.

          Abstract

          Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between membrane leaflets but change their location in various biological processes, which requires designated proteins — flippases and scramblases. Recent insights into the functional mechanisms of these proteins pave the way for better understanding of the roles of membrane asymmetry and the (patho)physiological consequences of its disruption.

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          Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold

          Proteins are essential to life, and understanding their structure can facilitate a mechanistic understanding of their function. Through an enormous experimental effort 1 – 4 , the structures of around 100,000 unique proteins have been determined 5 , but this represents a small fraction of the billions of known protein sequences 6 , 7 . Structural coverage is bottlenecked by the months to years of painstaking effort required to determine a single protein structure. Accurate computational approaches are needed to address this gap and to enable large-scale structural bioinformatics. Predicting the three-dimensional structure that a protein will adopt based solely on its amino acid sequence—the structure prediction component of the ‘protein folding problem’ 8 —has been an important open research problem for more than 50 years 9 . Despite recent progress 10 – 14 , existing methods fall far short of atomic accuracy, especially when no homologous structure is available. Here we provide the first computational method that can regularly predict protein structures with atomic accuracy even in cases in which no similar structure is known. We validated an entirely redesigned version of our neural network-based model, AlphaFold, in the challenging 14th Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP14) 15 , demonstrating accuracy competitive with experimental structures in a majority of cases and greatly outperforming other methods. Underpinning the latest version of AlphaFold is a novel machine learning approach that incorporates physical and biological knowledge about protein structure, leveraging multi-sequence alignments, into the design of the deep learning algorithm. AlphaFold predicts protein structures with an accuracy competitive with experimental structures in the majority of cases using a novel deep learning architecture.
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            A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity.

            Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the silencing of invading nucleic acids. We show here that in a subset of these systems, the mature crRNA that is base-paired to trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) forms a two-RNA structure that directs the CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 to introduce double-stranded (ds) breaks in target DNA. At sites complementary to the crRNA-guide sequence, the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain cleaves the complementary strand, whereas the Cas9 RuvC-like domain cleaves the noncomplementary strand. The dual-tracrRNA:crRNA, when engineered as a single RNA chimera, also directs sequence-specific Cas9 dsDNA cleavage. Our study reveals a family of endonucleases that use dual-RNAs for site-specific DNA cleavage and highlights the potential to exploit the system for RNA-programmable genome editing.
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              Is Open Access

              Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018

              Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                snagata@ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp
                Journal
                Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol
                Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol
                Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                1471-0072
                1471-0080
                27 April 2023
                : 1-21
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.136593.b, ISNI 0000 0004 0373 3971, Biochemistry & Immunology, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, , Osaka University, ; Osaka, Japan
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9758-8426
                Article
                604
                10.1038/s41580-023-00604-z
                10134735
                37106071
                66aa4cab-63e4-4329-a4e0-7643a1dd4f5d
                © Springer Nature Limited 2023, Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                History
                : 9 March 2023
                Categories
                Review Article

                phospholipids,lipid signalling
                phospholipids, lipid signalling

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