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      Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review

      review-article
      Molecules
      MDPI
      essential oils, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory

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          Abstract

          Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.

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          Most cited references135

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          Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease

          Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly formed in the human body. Free-radical mechanisms have been implicated in the pathology of several human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, and rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the superoxide radical (O2 ·−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated in the brain and nervous system in vivo, and several areas of the human brain are rich in iron, which appears to be easily mobilizable in a form that can stimulate free-radical reactions. Antioxidant defenses to remove O2 ·− and H2O2 exist. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) remove O2 ·− by greatly accelerating its conversion to H2O2. Catalases in peroxisomes convert H2O2 into water and O2 and help to dispose of H2O2 generated by the action of the oxidase enzymes that are located in these organelles. Other important H2O2-removing enzymes in human cells are the glutathione peroxidases. When produced in excess, ROS can cause tissue injury. However, tissue injury can itself cause ROS generation (e.g., by causing activation of phagocytes or releasing transition metal ions from damaged cells), which may (or may not, depending on the situation) contribute to a worsening of the injury. Assessment of oxidative damage to biomolecules by means of emerging technologies based on products of oxidative damage to DNA (e.g., 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), lipids (e.g., isoprostanes), and proteins (altered amino acids) would not only advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms but also facilitate supplementation and intervention studies designed and conducted to test antioxidant efficacy in human health and disease.
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            THE 1-DEOXY-D-XYLULOSE-5-PHOSPHATE PATHWAY OF ISOPRENOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANTS.

            In plants the biosynthesis of prenyllipids and isoprenoids proceeds via two independent pathways: (a) the cytosolic classical acetate/mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of sterols, sesquiterpenes, triterpenoids; and (b) the alternative, non-mevalonate 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DOXP) pathway for the biosynthesis of plastidic isoprenoids, such as carotenoids, phytol (a side-chain of chlorophylls), plastoquinone-9, isoprene, mono-, and diterpenes. Both pathways form the active C5-unit isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) as the precursor from which all other isoprenoids are formed via head-to-tail addition. This review summarizes current knowledge of the novel 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DOXP) pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis, apparently located in plastids. The DOXP pathway of IPP formation starts from D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA-3-P) and pyruvate, with DOXP-synthase as the starting enzyme. This pathway provides new insight into the regulation of chloroplast metabolism.
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              Assessment of antioxidant capacity in vitro and in vivo.

              Etsuo Niki (2010)
              The role and beneficial effects of antioxidants against various disorders and diseases induced by oxidative stress have received much attention. Many types of antioxidants with different functions play their role in the defense network in vivo. The free radical scavenging antioxidants are one of the important classes of antioxidants and the assessment of their capacity has been the subject of extensive studies and argument. Various methods have been developed and applied in different systems, but many available methods result in inconsistent results. There is no simple universal method by which antioxidant capacity can be assessed accurately and quantitatively. In this review article, the available methods are critically reviewed on the basis of the mechanisms and dynamics of antioxidant action, and the methods are proposed to assess the capacity of radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation both in vitro and in vivo. It is emphasized that the prevailing competition methods such as oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) using a reference probe may be useful for assessing the capacity for scavenging free radicals but that such methods do not evaluate the characteristics of antioxidants and do not necessarily show the capacity to suppress the oxidation, that is, antioxidation. It is recommended that the capacity of antioxidant compounds and their mixtures for antioxidation should be assessed from their effect on the levels of plasma lipid peroxidation in vitro and biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                15 December 2010
                December 2010
                : 15
                : 12
                : 9252-9287
                Affiliations
                Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, IBB, Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Ed. 8, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal; E-Mail: mgmiguel@ 123456ualg.pt
                Article
                molecules-15-09252
                10.3390/molecules15129252
                6259136
                21160452
                66abab3f-f8ec-4f93-941a-ccd56cb61a8c
                © 2010 by the authors;

                licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                History
                : 02 December 2010
                : 09 December 2010
                : 13 December 2010
                Categories
                Review

                essential oils,antioxidant,anti-inflammatory
                essential oils, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory

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