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      Synergistic Carcinogenesis of HPV18 and MNNG in Het-1A Cells through p62-KEAP1-NRF2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway

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      Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine is a clear carcinogen, increasing evidence that indicates an etiological role of human papillomavirus in esophageal carcinoma. Studies have reported the synergistic effect on environmental carcinogens and viruses in recent years. On the basis of establishing the malignant transformation model of Het-1A cells induced by synergistic of HPV18 and MNNG, this study was to explore the synergistic carcinogenesis of MNNG and HPV. Our research indicated that HPV&MNNG led to a significant increase in the protein-expression levels of c-Myc, cyclinD1, BCL-2, BAX, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, mTOR, LC3II, and p62, with concomitant decreases in p21 and LC3I. HPV18 and MNNG induced accumulation of p62 and its interaction with KEAP1, which promoted NRF2 nuclear translocation. p62 loss prevents growth and increases autophagy of malignant cells by activating KEAP1/NRF2-dependent antioxidative response. In addition, PI3K and p-AKT were stimulated by HPV&MNNG, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR is positively associated with cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and autophagy during malignant transformation. Taken together, MNNG&HPV regulates autophagy and further accelerates cell appreciation by activating the p62/KEAP1/NRF2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. MNNG&HPV may improve Het-1A cell autophagy to contribute to excessive cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and protection from oxidative damage, thus accelerating the process of cell malignant transformation and leading to cancerous cells.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            EMT: 2016.

            The significant parallels between cell plasticity during embryonic development and carcinoma progression have helped us understand the importance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human disease. Our expanding knowledge of EMT has led to a clarification of the EMT program as a set of multiple and dynamic transitional states between the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, as opposed to a process involving a single binary decision. EMT and its intermediate states have recently been identified as crucial drivers of organ fibrosis and tumor progression, although there is some need for caution when interpreting its contribution to metastatic colonization. Here, we discuss the current state-of-the-art and latest findings regarding the concept of cellular plasticity and heterogeneity in EMT. We raise some of the questions pending and identify the challenges faced in this fast-moving field.
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              mTOR signaling in growth control and disease.

              The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway senses and integrates a variety of environmental cues to regulate organismal growth and homeostasis. The pathway regulates many major cellular processes and is implicated in an increasing number of pathological conditions, including cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mTOR pathway and its role in health, disease, and aging. We further discuss pharmacological approaches to treat human pathologies linked to mTOR deregulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2020
                9 October 2020
                : 2020
                Affiliations
                Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Alin Ciobica

                Article
                10.1155/2020/6352876
                7586040
                Copyright © 2020 Ying Zhang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Southeast University
                Award ID: YBPY2047
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81573191
                Award ID: 81872588
                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine

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