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      Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells

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          Abstract

          Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells with a unique ability to induce primary immune responses. DCs capture and transfer information from the outside world to the cells of the adaptive immune system. DCs are not only critical for the induction of primary immune responses, but may also be important for the induction of immunological tolerance, as well as for the regulation of the type of T cell-mediated immune response. Although our understanding of DC biology is still in its infancy, we are now beginning to use DC-based immunotherapy protocols to elicit immunity against cancer and infectious diseases.

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          Most cited references 200

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          T-cell help for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is mediated by CD40-CD40L interactions.

          Although in vivo priming of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generally requires the participation of CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes, the nature of the 'help' provided to CTLs is unknown. One widely held view is that help for CTLs is mediated by cytokines produced by T-helper cells activated in proximity to the CTL precursor at the surface of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An alternative theory is that, rather than being directly supplied to the CTL by the helper cell, help is delivered through activation of the APC, which can then prime the CTL directly. CD40 and its ligand, CD40L, may activate the APC to allow CTL priming. CD40L is expressed on the surface of activated CD4+ T-helper cells and is involved in their activation and in the development of their effector functions. Ligation of CD40 on the surface of APCs such as dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells greatly increases their antigen-presentation and co-stimulatory capacity. Here we report that signalling through CD40 can replace CD4+ T-helper cells in priming of helper-dependent CD8+ CTL responses. Blockade of CD40L inhibits CTL priming; this inhibition is overcome by signalling through CD40. CD40-CD40L interactions are therefore vital in the delivery of T-cell help for CTL priming.
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            Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity.

            The concept of innate immunity refers to the first-line host defense that serves to limit infection in the early hours after exposure to microorganisms. Recent data have highlighted similarities between pathogen recognition, signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms of innate immunity in Drosophila and mammals, pointing to a common ancestry of these defenses. In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity.
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              Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class I-restricted CTLs.

              CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) mediate resistance to infectious agents and tumours. Classically, CTLs recognize antigens that are localized in the cytoplasm of target cells, processed and presented as peptide complexes with class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). However, there is evidence for an exogenous pathway whereby antigens that are not expected to gain access to the cytoplasm are presented on MHC class I molecules. The most dramatic example is the in vivo phenomenon of cross-priming: antigens from donor cells are acquired by bone-marrow-derived host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and presented on MHC class I molecules. Two unanswered questions concern the identity of this bone-marrow-derived cell and how such antigens are acquired. Here we show that human dendritic cells, but not macrophages, efficiently present antigen derived from apoptotic cells, stimulating class I-restricted CD8+ CTLs. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which potent APCs acquire antigens from tumours, transplants, infected cells, or even self-tissue, for stimulation or tolerization of CTLs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Immunology
                Annu. Rev. Immunol.
                Annual Reviews
                0732-0582
                1545-3278
                April 2000
                April 2000
                : 18
                : 1
                : 767-811
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, Dallas, Texas, 75204; email: , , ,
                [2 ]Laboratory of Immunological Research, Schering-Plough, Dardilly, 69572, France; email: , ,
                [3 ]Department of Immunobiology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, 94304; email:
                Article
                10.1146/annurev.immunol.18.1.767
                10837075
                © 2000

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