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      Arousal transitions in sleep, wakefulness, and anesthesia are characterized by an orderly sequence of cortical events.

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          Abstract

          Many aspects of brain function are influenced by modulatory processes, including arousal. The most abrupt changes in arousal occur at the wake-sleep transition and at the induction of anesthetic conditions. They are accompanied by major electrophysiological changes, including an emergence of low-frequency (sleep-like) activity and a loss of mid-frequency (wake-like) activity that has been linked to feedback processes of the brain. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between these two types of electrophysiological changes, as well as the cortical mechanisms underlying changes in arousal and consciousness, remain poorly understood. To address this, we studied spontaneous electro-cortical activity during arousal changes in macaques. During sleep and at loss of consciousness induced by propofol anesthesia, we identified a prototypical sequence of cortical events in which the loss of mid-frequency activity preceded, by seconds, the increases in low-frequency activity. Furthermore, in visual areas, an influence of mid-frequency change onto high-frequency activity was observed across visual hierarchy. These results are consistent with the notion that drops in arousal and consciousness are facilitated by a release of feedback cortical inhibition.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Neuroimage
          NeuroImage
          Elsevier BV
          1095-9572
          1053-8119
          Aug 01 2015
          : 116
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Advanced MRI Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address: liux15@ninds.nih.gov.
          [2 ] Laboratory for Adaptive Intelligence, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan.
          [3 ] Section on Cognitive Neurophysiology and Imaging, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Neurophysiology Imaging Facility, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
          [4 ] Advanced MRI Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
          [5 ] Frontal Lobe Function Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.
          Article
          S1053-8119(15)00281-5 NIHMS680153
          10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.003
          4468021
          25865143

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