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      A simple frequency-scaling rule for animal communication.

      The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

      Animal Communication, Animals, Biological Evolution, Body Constitution, physiology, Crustacea, Ear, External, anatomy & histology, Hearing, Humans, Insects, Lung, Mammals, Models, Theoretical, Pressure, Regression Analysis, Species Specificity, Vertebrates, Vocalization, Animal

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          Abstract

          Different animals use widely different frequencies for sound communication, and it is reasonable to assume that evolution has adapted these frequencies to give greatest conspecific communication distance for a given vocal effort. Acoustic analysis shows that the optimal communication frequency is inversely proportional to about the 0.4 power of the animal's body mass. Comparison with observational data indicates that this prediction is well supported in practice. For animals of a given class, for example mammals, the maximum communication distance varies about as the 0.6 power of the animal's mass. There is, however, a wide spread of observed results because of the different emphasis placed upon vocal effort in the evolution of different animal species.

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          15139646

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