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      Chitosan nanoparticles having higher degree of acetylation induce resistance against pearl millet downy mildew through nitric oxide generation

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          Abstract

          Downy mildew of pearl millet caused by the biotrophic oomycete Sclerospora graminicola is the most devastating disease which impairs pearl millet production causing huge yield and monetary losses. Chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) were synthesized from low molecular weight chitosan having higher degree of acetylation was evaluated for their efficacy against downy mildew disease of pearl millet caused by Sclerospora graminicola. Laboratory studies showed that CNP seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination percentage and seedling vigor compared to the control. Seed treatment with CNP induced systemic and durable resistance and showed significant downy mildew protection under greenhouse conditions in comparison to the untreated control. Seed treatment with CNP showed changes in gene expression profiles wherein expression of genes of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were highly upregulated. CNP treatment resulted in earlier and higher expression of the pathogenesis related proteins PR1 and PR5. Downy mildew protective effect offered by CNP was found to be modulated by nitric oxide and treatment with CNP along with NO inhibitors cPTIO completely abolished the gene expression of defense enzymes and PR proteins. Further, comparative analysis of CNP with Chitosan revealed that the very small dosage of CNP performed at par with recommended dose of Chitosan for downy mildew management.

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          Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum lagenarium

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            Vigor Determination in Soybean Seed by Multiple Criteria1

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              Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress.

               Jing Guan,  Xia Shao,  Jin Hu (2009)
              Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize. The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w/v) chitosan solutions at 15 degrees C on the growth and physiological changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan had no significant effect on germination percentage under low temperature stress, it enhanced germination index, reduced the mean germination time (MGT), and increased shoot height, root length, and shoot and root dry weights in both maize lines. The decline of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative permeability of the plasma membrane and the increase of the concentrations of soluble sugars and proline, peroxidase (POD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were detected both in the chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant maize seedlings after priming with the three concentrations of chitosan. HuangC was less sensitive to responding to different concentrations of chitosan. Priming with 0.50% chitosan for about 60 approximately 64 h seemed to have the best effects. Thus, it suggests that seed priming with chitosan may improve the speed of germination of maize seed and benefit for seedling growth under low temperature stress.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                moonnayak@gmail.com
                r.k.srivastava@cgiar.org
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                6 February 2018
                6 February 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0805 7368, GRID grid.413039.c, Department of Studies in Biotechnology, , University of Mysore, ; Manasagangotri, Mysore, 570006 Karnataka India
                [2 ]GRID grid.418099.d, Department of Biochemistry, Central Food Technological Research Institute, , Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, ; Mysore, 570 020 Karnataka India
                [3 ]GRID grid.445109.d, Department of Studies in Microbiology, , Karnataka State Open University, ; Mukthagangotri, Mysore, 570006 Karnataka India
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8735 2850, GRID grid.411677.2, Microbiology Division, DRDO-BU-Centre for Life sciences, , Bharathiar University Campus, ; Coimbatore, 641046 Tamil Nadu India
                [5 ]ISNI 0000000110107715, GRID grid.6988.f, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Science, , Tallinn University of Technology, ; Tallinn, Estonia
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0643 7375, GRID grid.418105.9, All India Coordinated Research Project on Pearl Millet, , Indian Council of Agricultural Research, ; Mandor, Jodhpur, 342 304 Rajasthan India
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0526 1937, GRID grid.410727.7, Institute of Food Science and Technology, , Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, ; Beijing, 100193 China
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0571 5814, GRID grid.411040.0, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, , University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hațieganu”, ; Ghe. Marinescu 23, 400337 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9217 3865, GRID grid.411813.e, Molecular Microbiology and Systematics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, , Mizoram University, ; Mizoram, India
                [10 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9323 1772, GRID grid.419337.b, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), ; Patancheru, 502324 Telangana India
                Article
                19016
                10.1038/s41598-017-19016-z
                5802724
                29410438
                66be7e0a-2ce3-4aab-b3de-e53cb1d50609
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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