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      Methylation status of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and its clinical impact on prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma.

      European Journal of Haematology

      Acid Anhydride Hydrolases, genetics, metabolism, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, C-Reactive Protein, analysis, Case-Control Studies, DNA Methylation, Disease-Free Survival, Female, Genes, Tumor Suppressor, Humans, Hypoalbuminemia, blood, etiology, mortality, Male, Middle Aged, Multiple Myeloma, complications, Neoplasm Proteins, Prognosis, Sex Factors, Tumor Markers, Biological, beta 2-Microglobulin

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          Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) has been studied in multiple myeloma (MM). We determined the methylation status of the FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene, a putative TSG, in 48 patients with MM. Clinical association with its methylation status was then analyzed. The FHIT gene methylation was observed in 21 of the 48 patients (44%). No association between FHIT gene methylation and clinical variables such as age, gender and clinical stage was found. However, the estimated 50% survival time of the methylated group was significantly shorter than that of the unmethylated group (18.2 vs. 45.1 months, P < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed adverse prognostic factors: FHIT gene methylation (P = 0.028), poor performance status (I to IV, P = 0.002), anemia (< or =8.5 g/dL, P = 0.007), hypoalbuminemia (< or =3.5 g/dL, P < 0.002), high serum C-reactive protein levels (>0.5 mg/dL, P = 0.002), elevated beta-2-microglobulin serum levels (>6.5 mg/L, P < 0.001), and treatments not including autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis identified FHIT gene methylation [hazard ratio (HR) 1.722, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.150-2.603, P = 0.009], elevated beta-2-microglobulin serum levels (>6.5 mg/L, HR 2.005, 95% CI 1.035-3.937, P = 0.004), and treatments not including auto-PBSCT are independent predictive variables. These findings indicate that aberrant methylation of the FHIT gene is an independent adverse prognostic factor in MM.

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