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Determination of strongly overlapping signaling activity from microarray data

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      Abstract

      BackgroundAs numerous diseases involve errors in signal transduction, modern therapeutics often target proteins involved in cellular signaling. Interpretation of the activity of signaling pathways during disease development or therapeutic intervention would assist in drug development, design of therapy, and target identification. Microarrays provide a global measure of cellular response, however linking these responses to signaling pathways requires an analytic approach tuned to the underlying biology. An ongoing issue in pattern recognition in microarrays has been how to determine the number of patterns (or clusters) to use for data interpretation, and this is a critical issue as measures of statistical significance in gene ontology or pathways rely on proper separation of genes into groups.ResultsHere we introduce a method relying on gene annotation coupled to decompositional analysis of global gene expression data that allows us to estimate specific activity on strongly coupled signaling pathways and, in some cases, activity of specific signaling proteins. We demonstrate the technique using the Rosetta yeast deletion mutant data set, decompositional analysis by Bayesian Decomposition, and annotation analysis using ClutrFree. We determined from measurements of gene persistence in patterns across multiple potential dimensionalities that 15 basis vectors provides the correct dimensionality for interpreting the data. Using gene ontology and data on gene regulation in the Saccharomyces Genome Database, we identified the transcriptional signatures of several cellular processes in yeast, including cell wall creation, ribosomal disruption, chemical blocking of protein synthesis, and, criticially, individual signatures of the strongly coupled mating and filamentation pathways.ConclusionThis works demonstrates that microarray data can provide downstream indicators of pathway activity either through use of gene ontology or transcription factor databases. This can be used to investigate the specificity and success of targeted therapeutics as well as to elucidate signaling activity in normal and disease processes.

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      Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium.

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        Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns.

        A system of cluster analysis for genome-wide expression data from DNA microarray hybridization is described that uses standard statistical algorithms to arrange genes according to similarity in pattern of gene expression. The output is displayed graphically, conveying the clustering and the underlying expression data simultaneously in a form intuitive for biologists. We have found in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that clustering gene expression data groups together efficiently genes of known similar function, and we find a similar tendency in human data. Thus patterns seen in genome-wide expression experiments can be interpreted as indications of the status of cellular processes. Also, coexpression of genes of known function with poorly characterized or novel genes may provide a simple means of gaining leads to the functions of many genes for which information is not available currently.
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          Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response.

           V Tusher,  R Tibshirani,  G Chu (2001)
          Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify changes in expression between different biological states. Methods are needed to determine the significance of these changes while accounting for the enormous number of genes. We describe a method, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), that assigns a score to each gene on the basis of change in gene expression relative to the standard deviation of repeated measurements. For genes with scores greater than an adjustable threshold, SAM uses permutations of the repeated measurements to estimate the percentage of genes identified by chance, the false discovery rate (FDR). When the transcriptional response of human cells to ionizing radiation was measured by microarrays, SAM identified 34 genes that changed at least 1.5-fold with an estimated FDR of 12%, compared with FDRs of 60 and 84% by using conventional methods of analysis. Of the 34 genes, 19 were involved in cell cycle regulation and 3 in apoptosis. Surprisingly, four nucleotide excision repair genes were induced, suggesting that this repair pathway for UV-damaged DNA might play a previously unrecognized role in repairing DNA damaged by ionizing radiation.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA, 19111, USA
            [2 ]Structural and Genomic Information Laboratory, UPR2589-CNRS, 13288 Marseille, France
            [3 ]Center for Bioinformatics, Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 1423 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6021, USA
            Contributors
            Journal
            BMC Bioinformatics
            BMC Bioinformatics
            BioMed Central (London )
            1471-2105
            2006
            28 February 2006
            : 7
            : 99
            1413561
            1471-2105-7-99
            16507110
            10.1186/1471-2105-7-99
            Copyright © 2006 Bidaut et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Methodology Article

            Bioinformatics & Computational biology

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