Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens in feces from 77 cases of gastroenteritis in pediatric patients were examined. Mitochondrial enzymes, mitochondrial creatine kinase(mCK), mitochondrial aspartate amino-transferase(mAST) and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase(mMDH) activities in their sera were also measured and compared with the results of rotavirus and adenovirus antigens in the feces. Thirty-one cases were rotavirus antigen-negative(rota-negative)/adenovirus antigen-negative(adeno-negative), 5 were rota-negative/adenovirus antigen-positive(adeno-positive), 40 were rotavirus antigen-positive(rota-positive)/adeno-negative, and only one case showed positive for both antigens. The mean activities of these three enzymes were compared among 3 groups except one both positive case mentioned above and control group(n = 105) by Mann-Whitney U-test. The serum mCK activity was significantly higher in rota-positive/adeno-negative patients than in other groups(p < 0.01). On the other hand, no significant differences were observed for mAST and mMDH activities among any groups. It is suggested that these phenomena are caused by the differences of localization of these enzymes in mitochondria, that mCK is located the outer surface of inner membrane of mitochondria, and mAST and mMDH are located on the inner surface. The difference of serum mCK activity between rotavirus infection and adenovirus infection suggests that intestinal epithelial cell injury by rotavirus is stronger than that by adenovirus.